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COLOR PLATES

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Figures

Image of COLOR PLATE 1 (chapter 7)

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COLOR PLATE 1 (chapter 7)

Spatiotemporal model of oral bacterial colonization, showing the recognition of salivary pellicle receptors by early-colonizer bacteria and coaggregations of early colonizers, fusobacteria, and late colonizers of the tooth surface (32). Each coaggregation depicted is known to occur in a pairwise test. Collectively, these interactions are proposed to represent the development of dental plaque. Starting at the bottom, primary colonizers bind via adhesins (black lines) to complementary salivary receptors (blue-green columns) in the acquired pellicle coating the tooth surface. Late colonizers bind to previously bound bacteria. Sequential binding results in the appearance of nascent surfaces that bridge with the next coaggregating partner cell. Several kinds of coaggregations are shown as complementary sets of symbols of different shapes. One set is depicted in the box at the top. Proposed adhesins (symbols with a stem) are cell surface components that are heat inactivated (in a cell suspension heated to 85°C for 30 min) and protease sensitive; their complementary receptors (symbols without a stem) are unaffected by heat or protease. Identical symbols represent components that are functionally similar but may not be structurally identical. Rectangular symbols represent lactose-inhibitable coaggregations. The interactions between the adhesins of represented in red and the receptors of or represented by orange rectangles or a purple rectangle, respectively, are lactose-inhibitable interactions, but the chemical compositions of the receptors on and are not known. Other symbols represent components that have no known inhibitor. The distance-critical communication between and (12) is shown by double-headed black arrows labeled “diffusible signals.” The diffusible signal molecules are represented by short, double-headed black arrows surrounding . Distance-critical mutualism between and (46) or (13) is noted along the length of the proposed adhesin mediating the interaction. AI-2 molecules are depicted as short, double-headed blue arrows. The relative concentrations of AI-2 among early colonizers and late colonizers are depicted by the densities of the AI-2 arrows; low densities are found among early colonizers and high densities are found among late colonizers. Species reported to produce AI-2 are indicated by “” The bacterial species represented include , , , , , , , , and .

Citation: Brogden K, Minion F, Cornick N, Stanton T, Zhang Q, Nolan L, Wannemuehler M. 2007. COLOR PLATES, In Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 2 (chapter 7)

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COLOR PLATE 2 (chapter 7)

Confocal scanning laser microscopy analysis of dual-species biofilms (12). (A) Maximum projections (all confocal sections in a single field of view) of a single confocal stack showing fluorescence from Syto-59 (all cells), Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated anti- antibodies, and GFP ( expressing ). The lower right panel shows the overlay of GFP with anti-. Insets show enlargements of the boxed areas labeled with asterisks. (B) Graphs of fluorescence intensity versus depth for the dual-species microcolony (left) and the monospecies microcolony (right) depicted in the upper right corner of each graph. The dual-species microcolony is the same colony marked with asterisks in panel A and is shown as a superimposition of all three colors. The monospecies microcolony is labeled with daggers in panel A. Microcolonies are shown as maximum-projection images. The fluorescence of Syto-59 (blue triangles), Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated anti- antibodies (open squares), and GFP (green triangles) at each 0.5-μm-spaced optical slice of the confocal stack is shown.

Citation: Brogden K, Minion F, Cornick N, Stanton T, Zhang Q, Nolan L, Wannemuehler M. 2007. COLOR PLATES, In Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 3 (chapter 7)

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COLOR PLATE 3 (chapter 7)

Chemical complementation of the 34 mutant in dual-species biofilms with T14V. Shown are confocal micrographs and corresponding DPD concentration-dependent changes in the biovolumes of dual-species biofilms containing the 34 mutant (green bars) with T14V (red bars) after 22 h of growth at 37°C in flow cells (46). Data for the control biofilm with the 34 wild type and T14V are shown at the left. Biofilm communities were labeled with anti- 34 antibody (green) and anti- T14V antibody (red) and examined by scanning laser confocal microscopy. Dimensions of the regions shown are 375 by 375 μm ( perspective).

Citation: Brogden K, Minion F, Cornick N, Stanton T, Zhang Q, Nolan L, Wannemuehler M. 2007. COLOR PLATES, In Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 4 (chapter 7)

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COLOR PLATE 4 (chapter 7)

Diagrammatic representation of biofilm formation on the tooth surface and the potential roles of coaggregation, bridging, and AI-2 in the transition from health to disease. Stages show the colonization and growth of commensal organisms (stages 1 and 2) and the integration of and invasion by pathogenic species (stages 3 and 4). Different colors represent different species. Yellow, light blue, and dark blue cells are commensal species. Orange cells are at the crossroads of pathogen and commensal (for example, ), and red cells are pathogenic species. Relative amounts of AI-2 are shown as sparsely placed dots (low level of AI-2 produced) around commensals versus densely packed dots (high level of AI-2 produced) around pathogens (see the box at the bottom). A clean tooth surface, with the associated acquired pellicle, is colonized by commensal species (stage 1). The small green arrows indicate that these oral communities form and flourish under the flow of saliva or crevicular fluid. Coaggregation interactions contribute to colonization. The commensal cells produce picomolar amounts of AI-2, and this fosters mutualistic interdigitated growth. The interdigitated commensal community rapidly expands through AI-2-mediated mutualistic growth (stage 2). As commensal cell numbers and diversity increase, the likelihood of pathogen integration into the biofilm increases; integration can occur through coaggregation interactions with commensals (orange cells with yellow cells) or through a bridging species (red cells coaggregating with orange cells that coaggregate with yellow cells; stage 3). The pathogens produce higher concentrations of AI-2 than the commensals, and these high concentrations retard the mutualistic growth of the commensal species. With growth impaired by high AI-2 concentrations (stage 4), the commensal species are unable to compete with the invading, rapidly multiplying pathogens. The community composition shifts from that of predominant commensals to one including mostly pathogens. The arrows at the left are not intended to limit the optimal concentration of AI-2 to the single value indicated; rather, they identify a range of values higher and lower than the optimum.

Citation: Brogden K, Minion F, Cornick N, Stanton T, Zhang Q, Nolan L, Wannemuehler M. 2007. COLOR PLATES, In Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 5 (chapter 14)

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COLOR PLATE 5 (chapter 14)

Schematic of type III secretion structures in (representative of and structures), (representative of plant pathogenic bacteria), and EPEC. Various type III secretion structures are believed to be composed of a needle-like complex (in pink), which is anchored in the bacterial cell wall and has been visualized in and purified from several mammalian pathogens, and a translocation complex (translocon, in light blue) in the host membrane. EPEC also assembles the EspA filament (in green), which extends from the tip of the needle and may help to penetrate the host mucous barrier and a thick glycocalyx in order to reach the underlying intestinal enterocytes. presumably uses the Hrp pilus and possibly harpins to penetrate the host cell wall. Adapted from (42) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Brogden K, Minion F, Cornick N, Stanton T, Zhang Q, Nolan L, Wannemuehler M. 2007. COLOR PLATES, In Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 6 (chapter 15)

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COLOR PLATE 6 (chapter 15)

Genetic organization of the T4SS. Asterisks represent the regions containing gene duplications: the gene is present in seven copies, and the genes are present in five tandem repeats (108).

Citation: Brogden K, Minion F, Cornick N, Stanton T, Zhang Q, Nolan L, Wannemuehler M. 2007. COLOR PLATES, In Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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