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Chapter 7 : Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa

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Abstract:

In addition to the algae and protozoa, this chapter also considers the cultivation of one group of prokaryotes, namely, the cyanobacteria. Methods for the isolation and purification of algae and protozoa are broadly similar. The methods employed are comparable to those used for other microorganisms and can be broadly classified as enrichment methods, dilution methods, or physical and chemical methods. Although standardization of methods and media has been achieved for some purposes, particularly ecotoxicity testing, in general the medium composition depends both on the requirements of the algae and on the preferences of the researcher. Some protozoa are algivorous, while others are omnivores and feed on algae facultatively. A variety of algae and protozoa are classified as halophiles, perhaps the best studied being the phototroph , an alga that is commercially cultured for β-carotene. Some organisms obviously change when cultured on artificial media or under axenic conditions. This phenomenon is most commonly observed in cyanobacterial cultures, where loss of the ability to produce colonies, heterocysts, gas vacuoles, or akinetes can occur. To conserve genetic integrity and to minimize the maintenance requirements, long-term preservation methods have been developed for a wide range of biological materials. The methods described in this chapter have the advantage of requiring little routine maintenance of the preserved material and, in the case of cryopreservation, can effectively guarantee genetic stability. Research to improve techniques and to expand the range of organisms that can be maintained by using long-term preservation methods is ongoing.

Citation: Day J, Achilles-Day U, Brown S, Warren A. 2007. Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa, p 79-92. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch7

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Viruses
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Additional techniques employed to isolate and purify algae

Citation: Day J, Achilles-Day U, Brown S, Warren A. 2007. Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa, p 79-92. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch7
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TABLE 2

BG 11 (blue-green algal [cyanobacterial] medium)

Citation: Day J, Achilles-Day U, Brown S, Warren A. 2007. Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa, p 79-92. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch7
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TABLE 3

Jaworski’s medium

Citation: Day J, Achilles-Day U, Brown S, Warren A. 2007. Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa, p 79-92. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch7
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TABLE 4

Guillard’s f/2 medium

Citation: Day J, Achilles-Day U, Brown S, Warren A. 2007. Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa, p 79-92. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch7
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TABLE 5

Culture media used for the maintenance of nonmarine flagellates and ciliates

Citation: Day J, Achilles-Day U, Brown S, Warren A. 2007. Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa, p 79-92. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch7
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TABLE 6

Culture media for freshwater and soil amoebae

Citation: Day J, Achilles-Day U, Brown S, Warren A. 2007. Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa, p 79-92. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch7
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TABLE 7

Culture media for marine amoebae

Citation: Day J, Achilles-Day U, Brown S, Warren A. 2007. Cultivation of Algae and Protozoa, p 79-92. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch7

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