1887

Chapter 9 : Cultivation of Microbial Consortia and Communities

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Cultivation of Microbial Consortia and Communities, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815882/9781555813796_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815882/9781555813796_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

Model systems may be used for cultivation of microbial communities, and they offer the advantages of relative simplicity, experimental control, and replication. Some of the criteria used for isolating communities, and other types of cultures, are discussed in this chapter. Cultivation of defined communities requires that community culture methods be used instead of enrichment culture to better define the environment in terms of the concentration and flux of both substrates and products. The chapter emphasizes those culture systems which provide adequate environmental control of substrate flux and concentration throughout the time course of cultivation. Although batch systems may be used to cultivate microbial associations, they should be used and interpreted with caution. Chemostats, nutristats, microstats, and continuous-flow slide cultures (CFSCs) are among the culture methods commonly used to cultivate consortia and communities. Chemostats and other continuous cultures are among the most widely used systems for cultivating microbial communities and microbial consortia. Robbins device is one of the best-known and most widely used systems for studying biofilm communities and pure culture biofilms in applications ranging from medical to industrial and food research. Microstats are used for the cultivation of biofilm communities, as opposed to planktonic communities. Storage of communities under conditions suitable for preserving pure cultures may be inadequate for the preservation of communities.

Citation: Wolfaardt G, Korber D, Lawrence J. 2007. Cultivation of Microbial Consortia and Communities, p 101-111. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Environmental Microbiology
0.999615
Microbial Ecology
0.9944087
Chemicals
0.5142433
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4730152
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
0.4730152
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4730152
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
0.4730152
Culture Methods
0.41881242
0.999615
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Photographs of a RAB setup, showing general arrangement of multiple reactors and plumbing (A) and details of the inner rotating cylinder with 12 removable polycarbonate strips for biofilm development and subsequent analyses (B).

Citation: Wolfaardt G, Korber D, Lawrence J. 2007. Cultivation of Microbial Consortia and Communities, p 101-111. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic diagram of a multichannel flow cell. The use of flow cells containing multiple channels simplifies multiple comparisons, replication, and controls.

Citation: Wolfaardt G, Korber D, Lawrence J. 2007. Cultivation of Microbial Consortia and Communities, p 101-111. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(Left) Schematic cross section of a microstat perpendicular to the concentration gradient that develops through the porous matrix. The flow over the surface against the direction of the concentration gradient removes molecules as they diffuse out of the porous medium, thereby maintaining a steady state. Adapted from reference . (Right) Photograph of a microstat showing two-dimensional steady-state diffusion gradients that were created by diffusion through an agarose gel. In the case of recalcitrant compounds, microbial communities are provided spatial and temporal gradients on the surface of the gel, thereby allowing organization of community composition and biofilm structure that may facilitate improved utilization of the substrate.

Citation: Wolfaardt G, Korber D, Lawrence J. 2007. Cultivation of Microbial Consortia and Communities, p 101-111. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815882.ch09
1. Alleman, B. C.,, B. E. Logan, and, R. L. Gilbertson. 1995. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by fixed films of white rot fungi in rotating tube reactors. Water Res. 29:6167.
2. Aloi, J. E. 1990. A critical review of recent freshwater periphyton field methods. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:656670.
3. Araujo, J. C.,, R. Mortara,, J. R. Campos, and, R. F. Vazoller. 2004. Development and analysis of anaerobic biofilms onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Environ. Technol. 25:809817.
4. Arcangeli, J.-P.,, and E. Arvin. 1995. Cometabolic transformation of o-xylene in a biofilm system under nitrate reducing conditions. Biodegradation 6:1927.
5. Ayala-del-Río, H. L.,, S. J. Callister,, C. S. Criddle, and, J. M. Tiedje. 2004. Correspondence between community structure and function during succession in phenol- and phenol-plus-trichloroethene-fed sequencing batch reactors. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:49504960.
6. Bagge, D.,, M. Hjelm,, C. Johansen,, I. Huber, and, L. Grami. 2001. Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:23192325.
7. Battin, T. J.,, L. A. Kaplan,, J. D. Newbold,, X. Cheng, and, C. Hansen. 2003. Contributions of microbial biofilms to ecosystem processes in stream mesocosms. Nature 426:439442.
8. Battin, T. J.,, L. A. Kaplan,, J. D. Newbold,, X. Cheng, and, C. Hansen. 2003. Effects of current velocity on the nascent architecture of stream microbial biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:54435452.
9. Beijerinck, M. W. 1901. Enrichment culture studies with urea bacteria. Centblatt. Bakteriol. II 7:3361.
10. Bradshaw, D. J.,, P. D. Marsh,, K. M. Schilling, and, D. Cummins. 1996. A modified chemostat system to study the ecology of oral biofilms. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 80:124130.
11. Brefeld, O. 1881. Botanische Untersuchungen über Schimmelpilze: Culturemethoden. Leipzig, Germany.
12. Bremner, J. M.,, and G. C. McCarthy. 1993. Inhibition of soil nitrification by allelochemicals derived by plants and plant residues, p. 181–218. In Jean-Marc Bollag and, G. Stotzky (ed.), Soil Biochemistry. vol. 8. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, N.Y.
13. Bryant, M. P.,, E. A. Wolin,, M. J. Wolin, and, R. S. Wolfe. 1967. Methanobacillus omelianskii, a symbiotic association of two species of bacteria. Arch. Mikrobiol. 59:2031.
14. Caldwell, D. E. 1995. Cultivation and study of biofilm communities, p. 1–15. In H. Lappin-Scott and, J. W. Costerton (ed.), An Introduction to Bacterial Biofilms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
15. Caldwell, D. E. 1999. Post-modern ecology—is the environment the organism? Environ. Microbiol. 1:279281.
16. Caldwell, D. E. 2000. Is DNA the only code of life, or the first to be understood? Environ. Microbiol. 2:3.
17. Caldwell, D. E.,, and P. Hirsch. 1973. Growth of microorganisms in two-dimensional steady-state diffusion gradients. Can. J. Microbiol. 19:5358.
18. Caldwell, D. E.,, D. R. Korber, and, J. R. Lawrence. 1992. Confocal laser microscopy and computer image analysis. Adv. Microb. Ecol. 12:167.
19. Caldwell, D. E.,, D. R. Korber,, G. M. Wolfaardt, and, J. R. Lawrence. 1996. Do bacterial communities transcend Darwinism? Adv. Microb. Ecol. 15:172.
20. Caldwell, D. E.,, and J. R. Lawrence. 1986. Growth kinetics of Pseudomonas fluorescens microcolonies within the hydrodynamic boundary layers of surface microenvironments. Microb. Ecol. 12:299312.
21. Caldwell, D. E.,, and J. M. Tiedje. 1975. A morphological study of anaerobic bacteria from the hypolimnia of two Michigan lakes. Can. J. Microbiol. 21:362376.
22. Cao, Y. S.,, and G. J. Alaerts. 1995. Influence of reactor type and shear stress on aerobic biofilm morphology, population and kinetics. Water Res. 29:107118.
23. Characklis, W. G. 1990. Laboratory biofilm reactors, p. 55–89. In W. G. Characklis and, K. C. Marshall, (ed.), Biofilms. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.
24. Characklis, W. G.,, G. A. McFeters, and, K. C. Marshall. 1990. Physiological ecology in biofilm systems, p. 341–393. In W. G. Characklis and, K. C. Marshall (ed.), Biofilms. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.
25. Chenier, M. R.,, D. Beaumier,, R. Roy,, B. T. Driscoll,, J. R. Lawrence, and, C. W. Greer. 2003. Impact of seasonal variations and nutrient inputs on the cycling of nitrogen and the degradation of hexadecane by replicated river biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:51705177.
26. Cinar, O. 2004. The impact of feed composition on biodegradation of benzoate under cyclic (aerobic/anoxic) conditions. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 231:5965.
27. Codeco, C. T.,, and J. P. Grover. 2001. Competition along a spatial gradient of resource supply: a microbial experimental model. Am. Nat. 157:300315.
28. Coombe, R. A.,, A. Tatevossian, and, J. W. T. Wimpenny. 1981. Bacterial thin films as in vitro models for dental plaque, In R. M. Frank and, S. A. Leach (ed.), Surface and Colloid Phenomena in the Oral Cavity: Methodological Aspects. IRL Press, London, United Kingdom.
29. Croome, R. L.,, and P. A. Tyler. 1984. The microanatomy and ecology of Chlorochromatium aggregatum in two meromictic lakes in Tasmania, Australia. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130:27172724.
30. Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. New American Library, New York, N.Y.
31. Dejonghe, W.,, E. Berteloot,, J. Goris,, N. Boon,, K. Crul,, S. Maertens,, M. Höfte,, P. De Vos,, W. Verstraete, and, E. M. Top. 2003. Synergistic degradation of linuron by a bacterial consortium and isolation of a single linuron-degrading variovorax strain. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:15321541.
32. Drzyzga, O.,, and J. C. Gottschal. 2002. Tetrachloroethene dehalorespiration and growth of Desulfitobacterium frappieri TCE1 in strict dependence on the activity of Desulfovibrio fructosivorans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:642649.
33. Elvers, K. T.,, K. Leeming, and, H. M. Lappin-Scott. 2002. Binary and mixed population biofilms: time-lapse image analysis and disinfection with biocides. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 29:331338.
34. Emerson, D.,, R. M. Worden, and, J. A. Breznak. 1994. A diffusion gradient chamber for studying microbial behavior and separating organisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:12691278.
35. Feuillade, J.,, and M. Feuillade. 1979. A chemostat device adapted to planktonic Oscillatoria cultivation. Limnol. Oceanog. 24:562574.
36. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 1963. Specifications for identity and purity of food additives, p. 136. In Food Colors, vol. II. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
37. Gjaltema, A.,, P. A. M. Arts,, M. C. M. van Loosdrecht,, J. G. Kuenen, and, J. J. Heijnen. 1994. Heterogeneity of biofilms in rotating annular reactors: occurrence, structure, and consequences. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44:194204.
38. Gjaltema, A.,, and T. Griebe. 1995. Laboratory reactors and on-line monitoring: report of the discussion session. Water Sci. Technol. 32:257261.
39. Goel, R.,, T. Tokutom,, H. Yasui, and, T. Noike. 2003. Optimal process configuration for anaerobic digestion with ozonation. Water Sci. Technol. 48:8596.
40. Gottschal, J. C.,, and L. Dijkhuizen. 1988. The place of continuous culture in ecological research, p. 19–49. In J. W. T. Wimpenny (ed.), CRC Handbook of Laboratory Model Systems for Microbial Ecology Research, vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
41. Haefele, D. M.,, and S. E. Lindow. 1987. Flagellar motility confers epiphytic fitness advantages upon Pseudomonas syringae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:25282533.
42. Harder, W.,, J. G. Kuenen, and, A. Matin. 1977. Microbial selection in continuous culture. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 43:124.
43. Hendrickx, L.,, M. Hausner, and, S. Wuertz. 2003. Natural genetic transformation in monoculture Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:17211727.
44. Herbert, R. A. 1988. Bidirectional compound chemostats: applications of compound diffusion-linked chemostats in microbial ecology, p. 99–115. In J. W. T. Wimpenny (ed.), CRC Handbook of Laboratory Model Systems for Microbial Ecology Research, vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
45. Hirsch, P. 1984. Microcolony formation and consortia, p. 373–393. In K. C. Marshall (ed.), Microbial Adhesion and Aggregation. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
46. Holt, J. G.,, and N. R. Krieg. 1994. Enrichment and isolation, p. 179–204. In P. Gerhardt,, R. G. E. Murray,, W. A. Wood, and, N. R. Krieg (ed.), Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
47. Humenik, F. J. 1970. Respiratory relationships of a symbiotic algal-bacterial culture for wastewater nutrient removal. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 12:541560.
48. Hunt, A. P.,, and J. D. Perry. 1998. The effect of substratum roughness and river flow rate on the development of a freshwater biofilm community. Biofouling 12:287303.
49. Imran, M.,, D. Jones, and, H. Smith. 2005. Biofilms and the plasmid maintenance question. Math. Biosci. 193:183204.
50. Karthikeyan, S.,, G. M. Wolfaardt,, D. R. Korber, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1999. Identification of synergistic interactions among microorganisms in biofilms by digital image analysis. Int. Microbiol. 2:241250.
51. Kharazmi, A.,, B. Giwercman, and, N. Høiby. 1999. Robbins device in biofilm research. Methods Enzymol. 310:207215.
52. Kieft, T. L.,, and D. E. Caldwell. 1984. Chemostat and in-situ colonization kinetics of Thermothrix thiopara on calcite and pyrite surfaces. Geomicrobiol. J. 3:217229.
53. Kinniment, S. L.,, J. W. T. Wimpenny,, D. Adams, and, P. D. Marsh. 1996. Development of a steady-state oral microbial biofilm community using the constant-depth film fermenter. Microbiology 142:631638.
54. Kolenbrander, P. E.,, and J. London. 1992. Ecological significance of coaggregation among oral bacteria. Adv. Microb. Ecol. 12:183217.
55. Korber, D. R.,, G. A. James, and, J. W. Costerton. 1994. Evaluation of fleroxacin activity against established Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:16631669.
56. Korber, D. R.,, J. R. Lawrence, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1994. Effect of motility on surface colonization and reproductive success of Pseudomonas fluorescens in dual-dilution continuous culture and batch culture systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:14211429.
57. Korber, D. R.,, J. R. Lawrence,, B. Sutton, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1989. Effects of laminar flow velocity on the kinetics of surface recolonization by mot+ and mot Pseudomonas fluorescens. Microb. Ecol. 18:119.
58. Kuballa, J.,, and T. Griebe. 1995. Sorption kinetics of tributyltin on Elbe river biofilms. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 353:105106.
59. Larsen, T. A.,, and P. Harremoes, 1994. Combined reactor and microelectrode measurements in laboratory grown biofilms. Water Res. 28:14351441.
60. Lawrence, J. R.,, M. Chenier,, R. Roy,, D. Beaumier,, N. Fortin,, G. D. W. Swerhone,, T. R. Neu, and, C. W. Greer. 2004. Microscale and molecular assessment of the impacts of nickel, nutrients and oxygen level on river biofilm communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:43264339.
61. Lawrence, J. R.,, D. R. Korber, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1992. Behavioral analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus variants in high- and low-viscosity microenvironments using digital image processing. J. Bacteriol. 174:57325739.
62. Lawrence, J. R.,, D. R. Korber, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1995. Surface colonization strategies of biofilm-forming bacteria. Adv. Microb. Ecol. 14:157.
63. Lawrence J. R.,, G. D. W. Swerhone,, L. I. Wassenaar, and, T. R. Neu. 2005. Effects of selected pharmaceuticals on riverine biofilm communities. Can. J. Microbiol. 51:655669.
64. Lovanh, N.,, C. S. Hunt, and, P. J. J. Alvarez. 2002. Effect of ethanol on BTEX biodegradation kinetics: aerobic continuous culture experiments. Water Res. 36:37393746.
65. Lovelock, J. 1999. A way of life for agnostics. Gaia Circ. 2:69.
66. Lovitt, R. W.,, and J. W. T. Wimpenny. 1981. Physiological behavior of Escherichia coli grown in opposing gradients of oxidant and reductant in the gradostat. J. Gen. Microbiol. 127:269276.
67. Manz, W.,, K. Wendt-Potthoff,, T. R. Neu,, U. Szewzyk, and, J. R. Lawrence. 1999. Phylogenetic composition, spatial structure and dynamics of lotic bacterial biofilms investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Microb. Ecol. 37:225237.
68. Margalef, R. 1963. On certain unifying principles in ecology. Am. Nat. 117:357373.
69. Marvin, W.,, E. Brown, and, R. J. C. McLean. 1997. An inexpensive chemostat apparatus for the study of microbial biofilms. J. Microbiol. Methods 30:125132.
70. Massieux, B.,, M. E. Y. Boivin,, F. P. van den Ende,, J. Langenskiöld,, P. Marvan,, C. Barranguet,, W. Admiraal,, H. J. Laanbroek, and, G. Zwart. 2004. Analysis of structural and physiological profiles to assess the effects of Cu on biofilm microbial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:45124521.
71. McCoy, W. F.,, J. D. Bryers,, J. Robbins, and, J. W. Costerton. 1981. Observations of fouling biofilm formation. Can. J. Microbiol. 27:910917.
72. McLean, R. J. C.,, M. Whiteley,, B. C. Hoskins,, P. D. Majors, and, M. M. Sharma. 1999. Laboratory techniques for studying biofilm growth, physiology, and gene expression in flowing systems and porous media. Methods Enzymol. 310:248264.
73. Mindl, B.,, B. Sonntag,, J. Pernthaler,, J. Vrba,, R. Psenner, and, T. Posch. 2005. Effects of phosphorus loading on interactions of algae and bacteria: reinvestigation of the ‘phytoplankton-bacteria paradox’ in a continuous cultivation system. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 38:203213.
74. Molin, S.,, and T. Tolker-Nielsen. 2003. Gene transfer occurs with enhanced efficiency in biofilms and induces enhanced stabilization of the biofilm structure. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 14:255261.
75. Monod, J. 1949. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 3:371394.
76. Montgomery, L.,, and T. M. Vogel. 1992. Dechlorination of 2,3,5,6 tetrachlorobiphenyl by a phototrophic enrichment culture. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 94:247250.
77. Muller, R. H.,, and W. Babel. 2004. Delftia acidovorans MC1 resists high herbicide concentrations—a study of nutristat growth on (RS)–2–(2,4–dichlorophenoxy)propionate and 2,4–dichlorophenoxyacetate. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 68:622630.
78. Neu, T. R.,, and J. R. Lawrence. 1997. Development and structure of microbial stream biofilms as studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 24:1125.
79. Neut, D.,, E. P. de Groot,, R. S. Z. Kowalski,, J. R. van Horn,, H. C. van der Mei, and, H. J. Busscher. 2005. Gentamicin-loaded bone cement with clindamycin or fusidic acid added: biofilm formation and antibiotic release. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 73A:165170.
80. Nickel, J. C.,, I. Ruseska,, J. B. Wright, and, J. W. Costerton. 1985. Tobramycin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells growing as a biofilm on urinary catheter material. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27:619624.
81. Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology, 3rd ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa.
82. Olapade, O. A.,, and L. G. Leff. 2005. Seasonal response of stream biofilm communities to dissolved organic matter and nutrient enrichments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:22782287.
83. Paerl, H. W.,, and J. L. Pinckney. 1995. Microbial consortia: their roles in aquatic production and biogeochemical cycling. Microb. Ecol. 12:120.
84. Parkes, R. J.,, and E. Senior. 1988. Multistage chemostats and other models for studying anoxic ecosystems, p. 51–71. In J. W. T. Wimpenny (ed.), CRC Handbook of Laboratory Model Systems for Microbial Ecosystems, vol. 1. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Fla.
85. Parsek, M. R.,, and E. P. Greenberg. 1999. Quorum sensing signals in development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Methods Enzymol. 310:45.
86. Perfil’ev, B. V.,, and D. R. Gabe. 1969. Capillary Methods of Investigating Microorganisms. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.
87. Peters, A. C.,, and J. W. T. Wimpenny. 1988. A constant depth laboratory model film fermentor. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 32:263270.
88. Rutgers, M.,, J. J. Bogte,, A. M. Breure, and, J. G. van Andel. 1993. Growth and enrichment of pentachlorophenol-degrading microorganisms in the nutristat, a substrate concentration-controlled continuous culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:33733377.
89. Schiefer, G. E.,, and D. E. Caldwell. 1982. Synergistic interaction between Anabaena and Zoogloea spp. in carbon dioxide-limited continuous cultures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:8487.
90. Senior, E.,, A. T. Bull, and, J. H. Slater. 1976. Enzyme evolution in a microbial community growing on the herbicide Dalapon. Nature 263:476479.
91. Srinivasan, R.,, P. S. Stewart,, T. Griebe,, C.-I. Chen, and, X. Xu. 1995. Biofilm parameters influencing biocide efficacy. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 46:553560.
92. Stevens, T. O.,, and B. S. Holbert. 1995. Variability and density-dependency of bacteria in terrestrial subsurface samples: implication for enumeration. J. Microbiol. Methods 23:283292.
93. Stewart, P. S.,, B. M. Peyton,, W. J. Drury, and, R. Murga. 1993. Quantitative observations of heterogeneities in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:327329.
94. Swenson, W.,, J. Arendt, and, D. S. Wilson. 2000. Artificial selection of microbial ecosystems for 3-chloro-aniline degradation. Environ. Microbiol. 2:564571.
95. Swenson, W.,, D. S. Wilson, and, R. Elias. 2000. Artificial ecosystem selection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:91109114.
96. Thiele, J. H.,, C. M. Thartrain, and, J. G. Zeikus. 1988. Control of interspecies electron flow during anaerobic digestion: role of floc formation in syntrophic methano-genesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1019.
97. Trulear, M. G.,, and W. G. Characklis. 1982. Dynamics of biofilm processes. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 54:12881301.
98. Wilson, M. 1999. Use of constant depth film fermentor in studies of biofilms of oral bacteria. Methods. Enzymol. 310:264279.
99. Wolfaardt, G. M.,, J. R. Lawrence,, J. V. Headley,, R. D. Robarts, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1994. Microbial exopolymers provide a mechanism for bioaccumulation of contaminants. Microb. Ecol. 27:279291.
100. Wolfaardt, G. M.,, J. R. Lawrence,, M. J. Hendry,, R. D. Robarts, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1993. Development of steady-state diffusion gradients for the cultivation of degradative microbial consortia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:23882396.
101. Wolfaardt, G. M.,, J. R. Lawrence,, R. D. Robarts, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1994. The role of interactions, sessile growth and nutrient amendment on the degradative efficiency of a bacterial consortium. Can. J. Microbiol. 40:331340.
102. Wolfaardt, G. M.,, J. R. Lawrence,, R. D. Robarts,, S. J. Caldwell, and, D. E. Caldwell. 1994. Multicellular organization in a degradative biofilm community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:434446.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error