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Chapter 21 : Detection of Protozoan Parasites in Source and Finished Drinking Water

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Abstract:

This chapter deals primarily with human enteric protozoa and more specifically and . Presently, and are of great concern to the water treatment industry, because they are known to be the etiologic agents responsible for a number of episodes of waterborne gastroenteritis. In many cases the only way to accurately identify some free-living protozoans to genus and species is to collaborate with experts in the field. is one of the most frequently reported parasitic water-borne pathogens. Detection of and in source and finished water has been and continues to be of great interest. It is an immunofluorescence detection procedure performed after concentration of protozoans from large volumes of water. A section assumes use of a microscope, capable of epifluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy or Hoffman modulation optics, with stage and ocular micrometers and 20× (numerical aperture = 0.6) to 100× (numerical aperture = 1.3) oil immersion objectives. Microscopic examination also assumes that the ocular micrometer has been calibrated. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay can also be evaluated with a standard epifluorescence microscope. The major advance in using this approach is that the occurrence of false positives is reduced and that the need for DIC optics is eliminated. Depending upon the source or expert consulted, either may or may not be classified as a pathogen.

Citation: Schaefer III F. 2007. Detection of Protozoan Parasites in Source and Finished Drinking Water, p 265-279. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch21

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Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay
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Cryptosporidium parvum
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Image of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 1.

and oocysts were stained by immuno-FA and DAPI and were also viewed by Nomarski DIC microscopy. (A) Immuno-FA-stained cyst. (B) DAPI-stained cysts. Nu, nucleus. (C) Nomarski DIC photomicrograph of cysts. Mb, median body; Ax, axonemes. (D) Immuno-FA-stained oocysts. (E) DAPI-stained oocysts. (F) Nomarski DIC photomicrograph of oocyst. S, sporozoite (three showing). Bars = 5 μm. (Photomicrographs courtesy of Michael W. Ware, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.)

Citation: Schaefer III F. 2007. Detection of Protozoan Parasites in Source and Finished Drinking Water, p 265-279. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch21
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Water sampling apparatus.

Citation: Schaefer III F. 2007. Detection of Protozoan Parasites in Source and Finished Drinking Water, p 265-279. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch21
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Methods for scanning a well slide.

Citation: Schaefer III F. 2007. Detection of Protozoan Parasites in Source and Finished Drinking Water, p 265-279. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch21
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

QC acceptance criteria for

Citation: Schaefer III F. 2007. Detection of Protozoan Parasites in Source and Finished Drinking Water, p 265-279. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch21
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

QC acceptance criteria for

Citation: Schaefer III F. 2007. Detection of Protozoan Parasites in Source and Finished Drinking Water, p 265-279. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch21

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