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Chapter 24 : Detection of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater and Sludge
The presence of pathogens and the number of pathogenic bacteria that may be present in wastewater and biosolids are a function of the disease morbidity in the community from which the waste materials are derived and the degree of treatment the waste received. Representative genera of bacterial pathogens that may be found in domestic wastewater and sludge include Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Escherichia, Campylobacter, and Yersinia. Due to the difficulties in the isolation and detection of bacterial pathogens in wastewater and sludges, the use of surrogate (indicator) bacteria has been standard practice in water quality monitoring. Most of the available literature and reported experience in the sphere of wastewater and sludge have been directed towards the detection and enumeration of salmonellae. Environmental water samples may also be centrifuged to concentrate bacteria into a pellet, and the pelleted cells are then lysed in a silica-guanidinium thiocyanate lysis buffer, followed by several washing steps. These crude extracts have been shown to be sufficient to add directly to PCR amplification. Recently, magnetic capture beads have been employed in a wide variety of clinical, food, and environmental applications for the recovery of target nucleic acids that are subsequently amplified by PCR. There are a myriad of difficulties ranging from the huge diversity of microorganisms involved to the considerable variety of methodological approaches one can pursue.
List of selective enrichment media used for detection of Salmonella in wastewater and sludge
Major components of selected Salmonella isolation agars a