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Chapter 25 : Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasitic Protozoa in Shellfish

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Abstract:

Many types of methodologies have been used for the detection of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasitic protozoa from bivalve molluscs. This chapter presents general processing methodologies, including conventional detection approaches such as microscopic or cultural methods, as well as the molecular approaches that are increasingly being applied to the detection of these pathogens in the bivalve mollusc food matrix. For viruses and parasitic protozoa, the approach used for pathogen extraction and concentration not only affects the efficiency of recovery of targeted pathogens but also influences the sample-associated toxicity or inhibition of the assay. Although efforts to detect protozoan parasites in shellfish have lagged behind those for virus detection, like viruses, it is recommended that parasitic protozoa be concentrated from shellfish tissues prior to the application of detection methods. Most of the molecular approaches applied to the detection of pathogens in shellfish originated from the clinical literature and were first applied to pure cultures (bacteria) or to purified cell culture lysates or fecal suspensions (parasitic protozoa and viruses). The practical application of real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for quantification also needs to be investigated further. With consistent developmental effort, much as has been experienced over the last decade, even better methods for the rapid detection of human pathogenic microorganisms in shellfish at naturally occurring levels of contamination should be available in the future.

Citation: Jaykus L. 2007. Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasitic Protozoa in Shellfish, p 311-324. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch25

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Representative scheme for sample processing and subsequent detection of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and parasitic protozoa) in shellfish.

Citation: Jaykus L. 2007. Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasitic Protozoa in Shellfish, p 311-324. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch25
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Tables

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TABLE 1

General steps in isolation and detection of pathogens from shellfish by molecular techniques

Citation: Jaykus L. 2007. Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasitic Protozoa in Shellfish, p 311-324. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch25
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TABLE 2

Representative studies reporting detection of human enteric viruses in field, market, or outbreak-implicated shellfish

Citation: Jaykus L. 2007. Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasitic Protozoa in Shellfish, p 311-324. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch25
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Representative studies of enteric virus prevalence in shellfish

Citation: Jaykus L. 2007. Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasitic Protozoa in Shellfish, p 311-324. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch25
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Research needs to facilitate the routine use of molecular methods for detection of pathogens in shellfish

Citation: Jaykus L. 2007. Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasitic Protozoa in Shellfish, p 311-324. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch25

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