Chapter 26 : Control of Microorganisms in Source Water and Drinking Water

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There are hundreds of different enteric microorganisms that are known to infect humans. In recent years, we have seen an increased reliance on surface water and water recharge or reuse, which are perceived as a more vulnerable source than groundwater in terms of the microbial quality of water. Bacteriophages have been extensively researched as water quality indicators. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci has been used to determine sources of fecal pollution in natural water. Microbial monitoring is a cornerstone of any watershed quality assessment. Most raw drinking water sources are susceptible to significant water quality changes as stresses are placed on the surrounding environment due to natural, accidental, or intentional contaminations. Groundwater supplies are derived primarily from wells. Water from shallow wells or “hand-dug” wells is not considered groundwater because it is usually under the influence of surface water via runoff and infiltration and hence can have many of the characteristics of surface water. There are several types of physical methods for the treatment and/or disinfection of water, such as reverse osmosis, distillation, and use of UV light. Chlorination is probably the oldest and most widely used form of drinking water disinfection. It has several advantages which make it appealing and have bolstered its popularity. Advanced oxidation processes are processes for producing OH radicals for the oxidation of organic and inorganic impurities in water. Recently, biological treatment has been driven by the concern of increased biodegradable organic matter (BOM) in ozonated waters.

Citation: Abbaszadegan M, Margolin A. 2007. Control of Microorganisms in Source Water and Drinking Water, p 325-333. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch26
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