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Chapter 28 : Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil

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Abstract:

This chapter explains some of the quantitative approaches which are applicable to understanding the fate of microorganisms after they are released into water, wastewater and soil. In surface water, during periods when the water velocity is low, the tendency of microorganisms to adsorb onto suspended particulates facilitates the sedimentation of those organisms. Microorganisms released into the environment become susceptible to inactivation by a variety of physical and chemical factors. These include desiccation; thermal or pH related effects upon their biomolecules, which may include denaturation; radiation from sunlight; and effects of inorganic ions. The most important aspect of studies designed to evaluate the fate of microorganisms is to define the study population, which implies controlling or understanding any possible movement of individuals into or out of that population. With these stipulations in mind, a section focuses on the use of regression analysis to develop statistical models that describe temporal changes in microbial titer as a function of experimental parameters and water or soil characteristics. The chapter also talks about mathematically examining the rate at which populations of microorganisms die off following their release into the natural environment. The linear modeling approach requires two major assumptions. The first assumption is that any differences, or distances, between the plotted data points and the graphed equation are due to error. The second assumption is that the use of linear modeling is appropriate for the data being examined.

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28

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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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FIGURE 1

Visual presentation of equation 5 . Log-transformed titer ratio values are used as the dependent variable; these values are regressed linearly with respect to time () as the independent variable. The solid line is the slope, β, which represents a rate expressed as [log(/ )]/ β is the point where the solid line intercepts the axis. The dashed lines demonstrate deviations from log linearity due to shouldering (A) and tailing (B).

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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FIGURE 2

Graph of equation 5 applied to data points representing averages from two experiments that monitored the die-off of natural virus populations in aerobically digested wastewater sludge solids after land surface disposal ( ).

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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FIGURE 3

Plot of data points for the comparative survival of seeded viruses incubated in sterile soil ( ).

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Regression equations describing data for inactivation of indigenous viruses following land surface spreading of sludge

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Modeling the Fate of Microorganisms in Water, Wastewater, and Soil, p 355-364. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch28

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