1887

Chapter 29 : Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815882/9781555813796_Chap29-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815882/9781555813796_Chap29-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter addresses organisms which are infectious for humans, and while some of these represent aquatic contaminants that come from either human or animal reservoirs, others represent organisms which are naturally present in the environment. Five main variables must be considered when the risk of acquiring infectious disease by ingestion of water is estimated. These are the concentration of pathogenic organisms in water which are infectious by the route of ingestion, the amount of water ingested by an individual per unit of time, and the probabilities of infection, illness, and death associated with ingesting those pathogenic organisms. A recent estimate had found that the raw water entering that area’s municipal drinking water treatment plants contained an average level of 3.3 viruses per liter (viruses capable of infecting cultured mammalian cells and thus presumably capable of infecting humans). , which causes tuberculosis, is one of those microbes particularly adept at avoiding immunological defenses. While the mycobacterium is not waterborne, sadly other species of pathogenic mycobacteria are waterborne. Several important issues must be recognized and their implications must be understood when risk assessment estimations for infectious diseases are made. The first three of these issues specifically apply to estimations for drinking water. The last three apply not only to drinking water but also to any infectious disease risks regardless of the source of the pathogenic organisms.

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29

Key Concept Ranking

Drinking water Treatment Plants
0.40438348
0.40438348
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
1. Aboytes, R.,, G. D. Di Giovanni,, F. A. Abrams,, C. Rheinecker,, W. McElroy,, N. Shaw, and, M. W. LeChevallier. 2004. Detection of infectious Cryptosporidium in filtered drinking water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 96(9):8898.
2. Chappell, C. L.,, P. C. Okhuysen,, C. R. Sterling,, C. Wang,, W. Jakubowski, and, H. L. Dupont. 1999. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum in healthy adults with pre-existing anti-C. parvum serum immunoglobulin G. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60:157164.
3. Covert, T. C.,, M. R. Rodgers,, A. L. Reyes, and, G. N. Stelma, Jr. 1999. Occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:24922496.
4. Crawford, F. G.,, and S. H. Vermund. 1988. Human cryptosporidiosis. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 16:113159.
5. Gofti-LaRoche, L.,, D. Demanse,, J.-C. Joret, and, D. Zmirou. 2003. Health risks and parasitical quality of water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 95(5):162172.
6. Haas, C. N. 1996. How to average microbial densities to characterize risk. Water Res. 30:10361038.
7. Hibler, C. P. 1988. Analysis of municipal water samples for cysts of Giardia, p. 237–245. In B. R. Hammond (ed.), Advances in Giardia Research. University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Canada.
8. Hoxie, N. J.,, J. P. Davis,, J. M. Vergeront,, R. D. Nashold, and, K. A. Blair. 1997. Cryptosporidiosis-associated mortality following a massive waterborne outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Am. J. Public Health 87:20322035.
9. Hurst, C. J. 1991. Presence of enteric viruses in freshwater and their removal by the conventional drinking water treatment process. Bull. W. H. O. 69:113119.
10. Hurst, C. J.,, and N. J. Adcock. 2000. Relationship between humans and their viruses, p. 519–548. In C. J. Hurst (ed.), Viral Ecology. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
11. Hurst, C. J.,, R. M. Clark, and, S. E. Regli. 1996. Estimating the risk of acquiring infectious disease from ingestion of water, p. 99–139. In C. J. Hurst (ed.), Modeling Disease Transmission and Its Prevention by Disinfection. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
12. Hurst, C. J.,, K. A. McClellan, and, W. H. Benton. 1988. Comparison of cytopathogenicity, immunofluorescence and in situ DNA hybridization as methods for the detection of adenoviruses. Water Res. 22:15471552.
13. Katz, M.,, and S. A. Plotkin. 1967. Minimal infective dose of attenuated poliovirus for man. Am. J. Public Health 57:18371840.
14. Kay, D.,, J. Bartram,, A. Prüss,, N. Ashbolt,, M. D. Wyer,, J. M. Fleisher,, L. Fewtrell,, A. Rogers, and, G. Rees. 2004. Derivation of numerical values for the World Health Organization guidelines for recreational waters. Water Res. 38:12961304.
15. Koopman, J. S.,, E. A. Eckert,, H. B. Greenberg,, B. C. Strohm,, R. E. Isaacson, and, A. S. Monto. 1982. Norwalk virus enteric illness acquired by swimming exposure. Am. J. Epidemiol. 115(2):173177.
16. LeChevallier, M. W.,, W. D. Norton, and, R. G. Lee. 1991. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:26172621.
17. Mena, K. D.,, C. P. Gerba,, C. N. Haas, and, J. B. Rose. 2003. Risk assessment of waterborne coxsackievirus. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 95(7):122131.
18. Minor, T. E.,, C. I. Allen,, A. A. Tsiatis,, D. B. Nelson, and, D. J. D’Alessio. 1981. Human infective dose determinations for oral poliovirus type 1 vaccine in infants. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:388389.
19. Parshionikar, S. U.,, S. Willian-True,, G. Shay Fout,, D. E. Robbins,, S. A. Seys,, J. D. Cassady, and, R. Harris. 2003. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a norovirus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:52635268.
20. Payment, P.,, É. Coffin, and, G. Paquette. 1994. Blood agar to detect virulence factors in tap water heterotrophic bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:11791183.
21. Payment, P.,, and E. Franco. 1993. Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphages as indicators of the efficiency of drinking water treatment for viruses and protozoan cysts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:24182424.
22. Payment, P.,, L. Richardson,, J. Siemiatycki,, R. Dewar,, M. Edwardes, and, E. Franco. 1991. A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards. Am. J. Public Health 81:703708.
23. Payment, P.,, J. Siemiatycki,, L. Richardson,, G. Renaud,, E. Franco, and, M. Prévost. 1997. A prospective epidemiological study of gastrointestinal health effects due to the consumption of drinking water. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 7:531.
24. Payment, P.,, M. Trudel, and, R. Plante. 1985. Elimination of viruses and indicator bacteria at each step of treatment during preparation of drinking water at seven water treatment plants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:14181428.
25. Rab, M. A.,, M. K. Bile,, M. M. Mubarik,, H. Asghar,, Z. Sami,, S. Siddiqi,, A. S. Dil,, M. A. Barzgar,, M. A. Chaudhry, and, M. I. Burney. 1997. Water-borne hepatitis E virus epidemic in Islamabad, Pakistan: a common source outbreak traced to the malfunction of a modern water treatment plant. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:151157.
26. Regli, S.,, J. B. Rose,, C. N. Haas, and, C. P. Gerba. 1991. Modeling the risk from giardia and viruses in drinking water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 83:7684.
27. Rendtorff, R. C. 1954. The experimental transmission of human intestinal protozoan parasites. II. Giardia lamblia cysts given in capsules. Am. J. Hyg. 59:209220.
28. Schiff, G. M.,, G. M. Stefanovic,, E. C. Young,, D. S. Sander,, J. K. Pennekamp, and, R. L. Ward. 1984. Studies of echovirus-12 in volunteers: determination of minimal infective dose and the effect of previous infection on infectious dose. J. Infect. Dis. 150:858866.
29. Teunis, P. F. M.,, and A. H. Havelaar. 1999. Cryptosporidium in Drinking Water: Evaluation of the ILSI/RSI Quantitative Risk Assessment Framework. RIVM report 284-550-006. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
30. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1989. Exposure Factors Handbook, p. 2-1–2-10. EPA/600/8-89/043. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
31. Van Heerden, J.,, M. M. Ehlers,, W. B. Van Zyl, and, W. O. K. Grabow. 2003. Incidence of adenoviruses in raw and treated water. Water Res. 37:37043708.
32. Ward, R. L.,, D. I. Bernstein,, E. C. Young,, J. R. Sherwood,, D. R. Knowlton, and, G. M. Schiff. 1986. Human rotavirus studies in volunteers: determination of infectious dose and serological response to infection. J. Infect. Dis. 154:871880.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Examples of infectious diseases associated with waterborne pathogens

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

How the use of curve fitting can alter value estimates for the minimum infectious dose of a microorganism

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Probability that a human will become infected on ingesting an enteric microorganism

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Probability that infection of a human by an enteric microorganism will result in illness

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Probability that a human made ill by an enteric microorganism will die as a result of that illness

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

For validation 1: calculating the estimation of risk due to infectious, pathogenic viruses in the municipality’s water

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 7

For validation 1: calculating the estimation of risk due to in the municipality’s water

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 8

For validation 1: calculating the estimation of risk due to in the municipality’s water

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 9

For validation 1: overall summary of risk estimations for the known levels of infectious, pathogenic viruses and protozoans, with the remaining risk assumed to be due to infectious, pathogenic bacteria

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 10

For validation 1: backwards calculation to estimate the level of infectious, pathogenic bacteria in the municipality’s water, assuming that bacteria accounted for the risk not attributable to viruses and protozoa

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 11

For validation 2: calculating the estimation of risk due to infectious, pathogenic viruses in the municipality’s water

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 12

For validation 2: calculating the estimation of risk due to in the municipality’s water

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 13

For validation 2: calculating the estimation of risk due to in the municipality’s water

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 14

For validation 2: overall summary of risk estimations for the known levels of infectious, pathogenic viruses and protozoans with the remaining risk assumed to be due to infectious, pathogenic bacteria

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 15

For validation 2: backward calculation to estimate the level of infectious, pathogenic bacteria in the municipality’s water, assuming that bacteria accounted for the risk not attributable to viruses and protozoa

Citation: Hurst C. 2007. Estimating the Risk of Infectious Disease Associated with Pathogens in Drinking Water, p 365-377. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch29

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error