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Chapter 52 : Isolation, In Planta Detection, and Uses of Endophytic Bacteria for Plant Protection

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Abstract:

This chapter reviews endophytic bacteria and outlines procedures useful in establishing their presence, culture, and physiological and metabolic interactions with the host and their biotechnological uses. Alternatively, full-strength bleach may be used as described for endophytic fungal isolation. Isolation techniques may be modified to include techniques for isolating xylem-inhabiting endophytic bacteria from woody stems, although such bacteria make poor endophytes for biotechnological uses. The roots are plated on one or more media for bacterial isolations. It may be necessary to cut off and discard the end of each root when it is removed from the chloramine-T solution. Two general methods are used to isolate bacterial endophytes from surface-disinfected plant material: plant tissue direct and physical extraction isolation techniques. McInroy and Kloepper recommend the use of three media as a routine screening procedure during the isolation of endophytic bacteria: medium R2A (Difco) for oligotrophic bacteria, TSA (Difco) for culturable heterotrophic bacteria, and medium SC for the growth of fastidious organisms. The major use of endophytic bacteria has been for the control of plant diseases, and the manner in which this is accomplished is the subject of current research. The uses for phytoremediation with endophytic bacteria range from reducing petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soils to reducing soil heavy-metal concentrations, including water-soluble and volatile organic xenobiotics, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, high-ammonia waste and animal manure, chloroform, dichloromethane, xylene, and other hydrophobic pollutants.

Citation: Bacon C, Hinton D. 2007. Isolation, In Planta Detection, and Uses of Endophytic Bacteria for Plant Protection, p 638-651. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch52

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FIGURE 1

Light (A) and transmission electron (B) micrographs of , an endophytic bacterium associated with corn seedlings. Note the two types of intercellular spaces: empty spaces (arrows) which might have been filled with flaky deposits of unknown substances and are probably lysigenous intercellular spaces (A) and bacterial cells (arrowheads) located between schizogenous intercellular spaces formed from the partial breakdown of the middle lamellae of cells shown in the electron micrograph (A) (arrows) within cells of the root cortex (c) (B).

Citation: Bacon C, Hinton D. 2007. Isolation, In Planta Detection, and Uses of Endophytic Bacteria for Plant Protection, p 638-651. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch52
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Metabolites found in the intercellular spaces of plants

Citation: Bacon C, Hinton D. 2007. Isolation, In Planta Detection, and Uses of Endophytic Bacteria for Plant Protection, p 638-651. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch52
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Species of bacterial endophytes used in plant protection of different crop species and in environmental and human health

Citation: Bacon C, Hinton D. 2007. Isolation, In Planta Detection, and Uses of Endophytic Bacteria for Plant Protection, p 638-651. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch52
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Isolation and culture media for endophytic bacteria

Citation: Bacon C, Hinton D. 2007. Isolation, In Planta Detection, and Uses of Endophytic Bacteria for Plant Protection, p 638-651. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch52

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