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Chapter 58 : Soil Enzymes: Linking Proteomics and Ecological Processes

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Abstract:

Extracellular enzymes are the proximate agents of organic matter transformation in soils. Data on microbial distributions and diversity are accumulating rapidly, and advances in molecular biology are providing new tools that are applicable to extracellular enzyme studies. In particular, proteomic approaches can be used to identify the extracellular enzymes that link genomic information with ecological processes. This chapter presents brief overviews of recent advances in extracellular enzyme research. Root activity may be supplemented by enzyme production from mycorrhizal fungi. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are primarily involved in phosphorus (P) capture via production of phosphatases, accounting for 48 to 59% of total P uptake when P is supplied in organic form but only 22 to 33% when supplied in inorganic form. There is good evidence that invasive plant species alter nutrient cycling processes and that these changes are sometimes mediated by extracellular enzyme activity (EEA). Microplate technology also enables well-known colorimetric assays to be scaled down for high-throughput analyses. Two main challenges must be overcome to reduce variability to acceptable levels in these assays. First, there must be adequate homogenization of the environmental sample to ensure that the slurry in the microplate wells is representative of the initial material. The second challenge is that particles from the sample homogenate scatter the light beam of the microplate reader and make absorbance readings highly variable. Innovative approaches based on molecular biology are resolving long-standing questions about the mechanisms of biogeochemical processes and the controls on microbial diversity.

Citation: Allison S, Gartner T, Holland K, Weintraub M, Sinsabaugh R. 2007. Soil Enzymes: Linking Proteomics and Ecological Processes, p 704-711. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch58
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FIGURE 1

Extracellular enzyme activity catalyzes organic matter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in soil. Extracellular enzyme production is induced by signal pathways linked to substrate availability ( ) and microbial community organization ( ). Upon release, the function and fate of extracellular enzymes are determined by environmental conditions and soil structure ( ). These abiotic variables determine the economics of microbial enzyme production in relation to microbial growth.

Citation: Allison S, Gartner T, Holland K, Weintraub M, Sinsabaugh R. 2007. Soil Enzymes: Linking Proteomics and Ecological Processes, p 704-711. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch58
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Citation: Allison S, Gartner T, Holland K, Weintraub M, Sinsabaugh R. 2007. Soil Enzymes: Linking Proteomics and Ecological Processes, p 704-711. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch58
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