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Chapter 72 : Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection

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Abstract:

Source Water Assessment and Protection Programs (SWAPPs) require states to delineate and assess the areas of land that contribute to public water systems using both surface and groundwaters. An integral part of these programs is an analysis of the susceptibilities of these systems to chemical and microbial contamination. There are several methods that can be used to establish placement of drinking water wells to minimize microbial contamination. The six most common delineation methods, listed in order of increasing technical complexity, are as follows: arbitrary-fixed-radius method; calculated-fixed-radius method; simplified variable shape method; analytical method; hydrogeologic mapping; and numerical transport models. An analysis of hydrogeology, an understanding of the contaminants and the factors that control their fate and transport in specific environments, and an analysis of the effectiveness of existing prevention and mitigation measures are essential so that states can apply the assessment results to source water protection. There are several components of the proposed groundwater rule (GWR) that require similar assessments of groundwater vulnerability or sensitivity to microbial contamination to those performed by the SWAPP. There are many different methods that can be used to delineate zones around drinking water wells to protect the water supply from microbial contamination. Finally, many of the wells that are used for drinking water are owned and operated by small communities and individual businesses.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72

Key Concept Ranking

Human Pathogenic Viruses
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Surface Water
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1920 to 2001. Data are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Water source of disease outbreaks in the United States, 1991 to 2002. Data are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Zone of influence of a pumping well.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Fixed-radius method for delineating WHPAs.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Simple variable shape method for delineating WHPAs.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Example of a WHPA delineated by use of an analytical method.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Example of a WHPA delineated by hydrogeologic mapping.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Example of a WHPA delineated by use of a numerical model.

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

State requirements for setback distances from public water supply wells

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Examples of potential sources of microbial contaminants found in wellhead protection areas

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Delineation methods, types of systems that may use particular methods, minimum data that are required, and minimum radii of zones

Citation: Yates M. 2007. Placement of Drinking Water Wells and Their Protection, p 912-922. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch72

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