Chapter 73 : Introduction to Aerobiology

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Introduction to Aerobiology, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815882/9781555813796_Chap73-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815882/9781555813796_Chap73-2.gif


This chapter introduces the study of airborne microorganisms and their by-products, discusses indoor and anthropogenic outdoor sources of airborne microorganisms that affect human health and the environment, reviews the association of bioaerosols and indoor environmental quality, and briefly presents background information on airborne microorganisms as potential bioterrorism agents. The transport and ultimate settling of a bioaerosol are affected by its physical properties and by the environmental conditions that it encounters while airborne. The most important physical characteristics are the size, density, and shape of the droplets or particles, while the most significant environmental conditions are the temperature, relative humidity, and magnitude of air currents. Numerous anthropogenic activities serve as the origin of bioaerosols in outdoor environments, especially agricultural practices and wastewater treatment processes. In summary, interest in the populations of airborne microorganisms in agricultural and industrial settings, health care facilities, residences, offices, and classroom environments has increased in recent years. The threat of purposeful release of microorganisms as bioterrorism agents has prompted renewed interest in aerobiology, and research activity in this area of environmental microbiology has rapidly expanded.

Citation: Stetzenbach L. 2007. Introduction to Aerobiology, p 925-938. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch73

Key Concept Ranking

Environmental Microbiology
Yellow fever virus
Fungal Infections
Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever
Alternaria alternata
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abdel-Hafez, S. I.,, A. H. Moubasher,, A. A. Shoreit, and, M. A. Ismail. 1990. Fungal flora associated with combine harvester wheat and sorghum dusts from Egypt. J. Basic Microbiol. 30:467479.
2. Adams, A. P.,, and J. C. Spendlove. 1970. Coliform aerosols emitted by sewage treatment plants. Science 169:12181220.
3. Adams, D. J.,, J. C. Spendlove,, R. S. Spendlove, and, B. B. Barnett. 1982. Aerosol stability of infectious and potentially infectious reovirus particles. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:903908.
4. Alvarez, A. J.,, M. P. Buttner,, G. A. Toranzos,, E. A. Dvorsky,, A. Toro,, T. B. Heikes,, L. E. Mertikas-Pifer, and, L. D. Stetzenbach. 1994. Use of solid-phase PCR for enhanced detection of airborne microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:374376.
5. Alvarez, A. J.,, M. P. Buttner, and, L. D. Stetzenbach. 1995. PCR for bioaerosol monitoring: sensitivity and environmental interference. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:36393644.
6. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1999. Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, Ohio.
7. Anderson, R. L. 1969. Biological evaluation of carpeting. Appl. Microbiol. 18:180186.
8. Andersson, M. A.,, M. Nikulin,, U. Koljalg,, M. C. Andersson,, F. Rainey,, K. Reijula,, E. Hintikka, and, M. Salkinoja-Salonen. 1997. Bacteria, molds, and toxins in water-damaged building materials. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:387393.
9. Andersson, A. M.,, N. Weiss,, F. Rainey, and, M. S. Salkinoja-Salonen. 1999. Dust-borne bacteria in animal sheds, schools and children’s day care centers. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86:622634.
10. Applebaum, J.,, N. Guttman-Bass,, M. Lugten,, B. Teltsch,, B. Fattal, and, H. I. Shuval. 1984. Dispersion of aerosolized enteric viruses and bacteria by sprinkler irrigation with wastewater. Monogr. Virol. 15:193201.
11. Banaszak, E. F.,, J. Barboriak,, J. Fink,, G. Scanlon,, D. P. Schlueter,, A. Sosman,, W. Thiede, and, G. Unger. 1974. Epidemiologic studies relating thermophilic fungi and hypersensitivity lung syndromes. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 110:585591.
12. Bernstein, I. L.,, and R. S. Safferman. 1973. Clinical sensitivity to green algae demonstrated by nasal challenge and in vitro tests of immediate hypersensitivity. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 51:2228.
13. Bernstein, R. S.,, W. G. Sorenson,, D. Garabrant,, C. Reaux, and, R. D. Treitman. 1983. Exposures to respirable, airborne Penicillium from a contaminated ventilation system: clinical, environmental and epidemiological aspects. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 44:161169.
14. Blomquist, G.,, G. Strom, and, L.-H. Stromquist. 1984. Sampling of high concentrations of airborne fungi. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 10:109113.
15. Bollin, G. E.,, J. F. Plouffe,, M. F. Para, and, D. Hackman. 1985. Aerosols containing Legionella pneumophila generated by shower heads and hot-water faucets. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50:11281131.
16. Brenner, K. P.,, P. V. Scarpino, and, C. S. Clark. 1988. Animal viruses, coliphage, and bacteria in aerosols and wastewater at a spray irrigation site. Appl. Environ. Micro-biol. 54:409415.
17. Brimblecombe, P.,, N. Blades,, D. Camuffo,, G. Sturaro,, A. Valentino,, K. Gysels,, R. Van Grieken,, H.-J. Busse,, O. Kim,, U. Ulrych, and, M. Wieser. 1999. The indoor environment of a modern museum building, the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, Norwich, UK. Indoor Air 9:146164.
18. Brown, J. H.,, K. M. Cook,, F. G. Ney, and, T. Hatch. 1950. Influence of particle size upon the retention of particulate matter in the human lung. Am. J. Public Health 40:450458.
19. Brown, R. M.,, D. A. Larson, and, H. C. Bold. 1964. Airborne algae: their abundance and heterogeneity. Science 143:583585.
20. Brundage, J. F.,, R. M. Scott,, W. M. Lednar,, D. W. Smith, and, R. N. Miller. 1988. Building-associated risk of febrile acute respiratory diseases in Army trainees. JAMA 259:21082112.
21. Burge, H. A.,, W. R. Solomon, and, J. R. Boise. 1980. Microbial prevalence in domestic humidifiers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39:840844.
22. Burge, H. A.,, W. R. Solomon, and, M. L. Muilenberg. 1982. Evaluation of indoor plantings as allergen exposure sources. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 70:101108.
23. Burge, H. A.,, M. L. Muilenberg, and, J. A. Chapman. 1991. Crop plants as a source of fungus spores of medical importance, p 222–236. In J. H. Andrews and, S. S. Hirano (ed.), Microbial Ecology of Leaves. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
24. Burkhart, J. E.,, R. Stanevich, and, B. Kovak. 1993. Microorganism contamination of HVAC humidification systems: case study. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 8:10101014.
25. Burrell, R. 1991. Microbiological agents as health risks in indoor air. Environ. Health Perspect. 95:2934.
26. Buttner, M. P., and L. D. Stetzenbach. 1993. Monitoring of fungal spores in an experimental indoor environment to evaluate sampling methods and the effects of human activity on air sampling. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:219226.
27. Buttner, M. P.,, P. Cruz-Perez,, P. J. Garrett, and, L. D. Stetzenbach. 1999. Dispersal of fungal spores from three types of air handling system duct material. Aerobiologia 15:18.
28. Cammack, R. H. 1955. Seasonal changes in three common constituents of the air sporea of southern Nigeria. Nature 176:12701272.
29. Castellan, R. M.,, S. A. Olenchock,, J. L. Hankinson,, P. D. Millner,, J. B. Cocke,, C. K. Bragg,, H. H. Perkins, and, R. R. Jacobs. 1984. Acute bronchoconstriction induced by cotton dust: dose-related responses to endotoxin and other dust factors. Ann. Intern. Med. 101:157163.
30. Contreras, M. A.,, O. T. Cheung,, D. E. Sanders, and, R. S. Goldstein. 1988. Pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 137:149152.
31. Couvelli, H. D.,, J. Kleeman,, J. E. Martin,, W. L. Landau, and, R. L. Hughes. 1973. Bacterial emission from both vapor and aerosol humidifiers. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 108:698701.
32. Crawford, G. V.,, and P. H. Jones. 1979. Sampling and differentiation techniques for airborne organisms emitted from wastewater. Water Res. 13:393399.
33. Croft, W. S.,, B. B. Jarvis, and, C. S. Yatawara. 1986. Airborne outbreak of trichothecene toxicosis. Atmos. Environ. 20:549552.
34. Diglisic, G.,, C. A. Rossi,, A. Doti, and, D. K. Walshe. 1999. Seroprevalence study of Hantavirus infection in the community based population. Md. Med. J. 48:303306.
35. Dimmick, R. L.,, H. Wolochow, and, M. A. Chatigny. 1979. Evidence that bacteria can form new cells in airborne particles. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37:924927.
36. Duchaine, C.,, Y. Grimard, and, Y. Cormier. 2000. Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 61:5663.
37. Dutkiewicz, J.,, E. Krysinska-Traczyk,, C. Skorska,, J. Sitkowska,, Z. Prazmo, and, B. Urbanowicz. 2000. Exposure of agricultural workers to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin during handling of various vegetable products. Aerobiologia 16:193198.
38. Ebbehoj, N. E.,, M. O. Hansen,, T. Sigsgaard, and, L. Larsen. 2002. Building-related symptoms and molds: a two set intervention study. Indoor Air 12:273277.
39. Eduard, W.,, J. Lacey,, K. Karlsson,, U. Palmgren,, G. Strom, and, G. Blomquist. 1990. Evaluation of methods for enumerating microorganisms in filter samples from highly contaminated occupational environments. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 51:427436.
40. Edwards, J. H. 1980. Microbial and immunological investigations and remedial action after an outbreak of humidifier fever. Br. J. Ind. Med. 37:5562.
41. Fannin, K. F.,, S. C. Vana, and, W. Jakubowski. 1985. Effect of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant on ambient air densities of aerosols containing bacteria and viruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:11911196.
42. Fattal, B.,, E. Katzenelson,, N. Guttman-Bass, and, A. Sadovski. 1984. Relative survival rates of enteric viruses and bacterial indicators in water, soil, and air. Monogr. Virol. 15:184192.
43. Fink, J. N.,, E. F. Banazak,, W. H. Thiede, and, J. J. Barboriak. 1971. Interstitial pneumonitis due to hypersen-sitivity to an organism contaminating a heating system. Ann. Intern. Med. 74:8083.
44. Fischer, G.,, R. Schwalbe,, M. Moller,, R. Ostrowski, and, W. Dott. 1999. Species-specific production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC) by airborne fungi from a compost facility. Chemosphere 39:795-810.
45. Flaherty, D. K.,, F. H. Deck,, J. Cooper,, K. Bishop,, P. A. Winzenburger,, L. R. Smith,, L. Bynum, and, W. B. Witmer. 1984. Bacterial endotoxin isolated from a water spray air humidification system as a putative agent of occupation-related disease. Infect. Immun. 43:206212.
46. Garrett, M. H.,, P. R. Rayment,, M. A. Hooper,, M. J. Abramson, and, B. M. Hooper. 1998. Indoor airborne fungal spores, house dampness and associations with environmental factors and respiratory health in children. Clin. Exp. Allergy 28:459467.
47. Gillette, D. A.,, and I. H. Blifford, Jr. 1972. Measurement of aerosol size distribution and vertical fluxes of aerosols on land subject to wind erosion. J. Appl. Meteorol. 11:977987.
48. Grant, C.,, C. A. Hunter,, B. Flannigan, and, A. F. Bravery. 1989. The moisture requirements of moulds isolated from domestic dwellings. Int. Biodeterior. 25:259284.
49. Gravesen, S. 1979. Fungi as a cause of allergic disease. Allergy 34:135154.
50. Gravesen, S.,, P. A. Nielsen,, R. Iversen, and, K. F. Nielsen. 1999. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings—examples of risk construction and risk materials. Environ. Health Perspect. 107:505508.
51. Griffiths, W. D.,, and G. A. L. DeCoseno. 1994. The assessment of bioaerosols: a critical review. J. Aerosol Sci. 25:14251458.
52. Haggblom, P. 1987. De novo synthesis of alternariol in conidia of Alternaria alternata. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133:35273529.
53. Helms, C. M.,, R. M. Massanari,, R. Zeitler,, S. Streed,, M. J. R. Gilchrist,, N. Hall,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, J. Sywassink,, W. Johnson,, L. Wintermeyer, and, W. J. Hierholzer. 1983. Legionnaires’ disease associated with a hospital water system: a cluster of 24 nosocomial cases. Ann. Intern. Med. 99:172178.
54. Hirvonen, M. R.,, A. Nevalainen,, N. Makkonen,, J. Monkkonen, and, K. Savolainen. 1997. Induced production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophages by streptomycetes from indoor air of moldy houses. Arch. Environ. Health 52:426432.
55. Hodgson, M. J.,, P. Morey,, W. Leung,, L. Morrow,, D. Miller,, B. B. Jarvis,, H. Robbins,, J. F. Halsey, and, E. Storey. 1998. Building-associated pulmonary disease from exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 40:241249.
56. Hoge, C. W.,, M. R. Reichler,, E. A. Dominguez,, J. C. Bremer,, T. D. Mastro,, K. A. Hendricks,, D. M. Musher,, J. A. Elliott,, R. R. Facklam, and, R. F. Breiman. 1994. An epidemic of pneumococcal disease in an overcrowded, inadequately ventilated jail. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:643648.
57. Horner, W. E.,, A. G. Worthan, and, P. R. Morey. 2004. Air- and dustborne mycoflora in houses free of water damage and fungal growth. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:63946400.
58. Hugenholtz, P.,, and J. A. Fuerst. 1992. Heterotrophic bacteria in an air-handling system. Appl. Environ. Micro-biol. 58:39143920.
59. Hughes, M. S.,, and T. W. Steele. 1994. Occurrence and distribution of Legionella species in composted plant materials. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:20032005.
60. Huuskonen, M. S.,, K. Husman,, J. Jarvisalo,, O. Korhonen,, M. Kotimaa,, T. Kuusela,, H. Nordman,, A. Zitting, and, R. Mantyjarvi. 1984. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the tobacco industry. Br. J. Ind. Med. 41:7783.
61. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. 2004. Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
62. Ivens, U. I.,, N. O. Breum,, N. Ebbehoj,, B. H. Nielson,, O. M. Poulsen, and, H. Wurtz. 1999. Exposure-response relationship between gastrointestinal problems among waste collectors and bioaerosol exposure. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 25:238245.
63. Jain, A. K. 2000. Survey of bioaerosol in different indoor working environments in central India. Aerobiologia 16:221225.
64. Jarvis, B. B.,, W. G. Sorenson,, E. Hintikka,, M. Nikulin,, Y. Zhou,, J. Jiang,, S. Wang,, S. Hinkley,, R. A. Etzel, and, D. Dearborn. 1998. Study of toxin production by isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum and Memnoniella echinata isolated during a study of pulmonary hemosiderosis in infants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:36203625.
65. Jensen, P. A.,, W. F. Todd,, M. E. Hart,, R. L. Mickelsen, and, D. M. O’Brien. 1993. Evaluation and control of worker exposure to fungi in a beet sugar refinery. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 54:742748.
66. Johanning, E.,, P. Landsbergis,, M. Gareis,, C. S. Yang, and, E. Olmsted. 1999. Clinical experience and results of a sentinel health investigation related to indoor fungal exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 107:489494.
67. Jones, B. L.,, and J. T. Cookson. 1983. Natural atmospheric microbial conditions in a typical suburban area. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45:919934.
68. Juozaitis, A.,, Y. Huang,, K. Willeke,, J. Donnelly,, S. Kalatoor,, A. Leeson, and, R. Wyza. 1994. Dispersion of respirable aerosols in a fermentor and their removal in an exhaust system. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 9:552559.
69. Kaufmann, S. H. E.,, and J. D. A. van Embden. 1993. Tuberculosis: a neglected disease strikes back. Trends Micro-biol. 1:25.
70. Kilpelainen, M.,, E. O. Terho,, H. Helenius, and, M. Kosenvuo. 2001. Home dampness, current allergic disease, and respiratory infections among young adults. Thorax 56:462467.
71. Kingston, D. 1971. Selective media in air sampling: a review. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 34:221232.
72. Kirschner, R. A., Jr.,, B. C. Parker, and, J. O. Falkinham III. 1992. Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 145:271275.
73. Kiviranta, H.,, A. Tuomainen,, M. Reiman,, S. Laitinen,, A. Nevalainen, and, J. Liesivuori. 1999. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and volatile organic compounds in different types of waste handling. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 6:3944.
74. Knudsen, G. R.,, and H. W. Spurr, Jr. 1987. Field persistence and efficacy of five bacterial preparations for control of peanut leaf spot. Plant Dis. 71:442445.
75. Kotimaa, M. H. 1990. Occupational exposure to fungal and actinomycete spores during handling of wood chips. Grana 29:153156.
76. Kozak, P. P.,, J. Gallup,, L. H. Cummins, and, S. A. Gillman. 1980. Currently available methods for home mold surveys. II. Examples of problem homes surveyed. Ann. Allergy 45:167176.
77. Krake, A. M.,, K. A. Worthington,, K. M. Wallingford, and, K. F. Martinez. 1999. Evaluation of microbiological contamination in a museum. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 14:499509.
78. Krysinska-Traczyk, E.,, C. Skorska,, Z. Prazmo,, J. Sitkowska,, G. Cholewa, and, J. Dutkiewicz. 2004. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust, and endotoxin during flax scotching on farms. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 11:309317.
79. Kullman, G. J.,, P. S. Thorne,, P. F. Waldron,, J. J. Marx,, A. Ault,, D. M. Lewis,, P. D. Siegel,, S. A. Olenchock, and, J. A. Merchant. 1999. Organic dust exposures from work in dairy barns. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 59:403413.
80. Kumar, P.,, R. Marier, and, S. H. Leech. 1984. Respiratory allergies related to automobile air conditioners. N. Engl. J. Med. 311:16191621.
81. Lacey, J.,, and B. Crook. 1988. Fungal and actinomycete spores as pollutants of the workplace and occupational allergens. Am. Occup. Hyg. 32:515533.
82. Laitinen, S.,, J. Kangas,, M. Kotimaa,, J. Liesivuori,, P. J. Martikainen,, A. Nevalainen,, R. Sarantila, and, K. Husman. 1994. Workers’ exposure to airborne bacteria and endotoxins at industrial wastewater treatment plants. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 55:10551060.
83. Land, C. J.,, K. Hult,, R. Fuchs,, S. Hagelberg, and, H. Lundstrom. 1987. Tremorgenic mycotoxins from Aspergillus fumigatus as a possible occupational health problem in sawmills. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:787790.
84. Lawande, R. V.,, S. N. Abraham,, I. John, and, L. J. Egler. 1979. Recovery of soil Amebas from the nasal passages of children during the dusty harmattan period in Zaria. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 71:201203.
85. Lighthart, B. 1984. Microbial aerosols: estimated contribution of combine harvesting to an airshed. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:430432.
86. Lighthart, B. 1994. Physics of microbial bioaerosols, p. 5–27. In B. Lighthart and, A. J. Mohr (ed.), Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols: Theory and Applications. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y.
87. Lighthart, B. 2000. Mini-review of the concentration variations found in the alfresco atmospheric bacterial populations. Aerobiologia 16:716.
88. Lighthart, B.,, and A. J. Mohr. 1987. Estimating downwind concentrations of viable airborne microorganisms in dynamic atmospheric conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:15801583.
89. Lighthart, B.,, and L. D. Stetzenbach. 1994. Distribution of microbial bioaerosols, p. 68–98. In B. Lighthart and, A. J. Mohr (ed.), Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols: Theory and Applications. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y.
90. Lindemann, J.,, and C. D. Upper. 1985. Aerial dispersal of epiphytic bacteria over bean plants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50:12291232.
91. Lindemann, J.,, H. A. Constantinidou,, W. R. Barchet, and, C. D. Upper. 1982. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:10591063.
92. Lindow, S. E.,, G. R. Knudsen,, R. J. Seidler,, M. V. Walter,, V. W. Lambou,, P. S. Amy,, V. Prince, and, S. C. Hern. 1988. Aerial dispersal and epiphytic survival of Pseudomonas syringae during a pretest for the release of genetically engineered strains into the environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:15571563.
93. Lugauskas, A.,, A. Kirkstaponis, and, L. Sveistyte. 2004. Airborne fungus in industrial environments—potential agents of respiratory diseases. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 11:1925.
94. Lundholm, I. M. 1982. Comparison of methods for quantitative determinations of airborne bacteria and evaluation of total viable counts. Appl. Environ. Micro-biol. 44:179183.
95. Lynch, J. M.,, and N. J. Poole. 1979. Aerial dispersal and the development of microbial communities, p. 140–170. In J. M. Lynch and, N. J. Poole (ed.), Microbial Ecology: a Conceptual Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
96. Marshall, B.,, P. Flynn,, D. Kamely, and, S. B. Levy. 1988. Survival of Escherichia coli with and without ColE1::Tn5 after aerosol dispersal in a laboratory and a farm environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:17761783.
97. Michel, O. 2001. Role of house-dust endotoxin exposure in aetiology of allergy and asthma. Mediat. Inflamm. 10:301304.
98. Miller, J. D. 1992. Fungi as contaminants of indoor air. Atmos. Environ. 26A:21632172.
99. Miller, J. D.,, A. M. Laflamme,, Y. Sobol,, P. Lafontaine, and, R. Greenhalgh. 1988. Fungi and fungal products in some Canadian houses. Int. Biodeterior. 24:103120.
100. Milton, D. K.,, R. J. Gere,, H. A. Feldman, and, I. A. Greaves. 1990. Endotoxin measurement: aerosol sampling and application of a new limulus method. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 51:331337.
101. Mishra, S. K.,, L. Ajello,, D. G. Ahearn,, H. A. Burge,, V. P. Kurup,, D. L. Pierson,, D. L. Price,, R. S. Samson,, R. S. Sandhu,, B. Shelton,, R. B. Simmons, and, K. F. Switzer. 1992. Environmental mycology and its importance to public health. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30:287305.
102. Nikulin, M.,, A. Pasanen,, S. Berg, and, E. Hintikka. 1994. Stachybotrys atra growth and toxin production in some building materials and fodder under different relative humidities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:34213424.
103. Nikulin, M.,, K. Reijula,, B. B. Jarvis,, P. Veijalainen, and, E. Hintikka. 1997. Effects of intranasal exposure to spores of Stachybotrys atra in mice. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 35:182188.
104. Nilsson, A.,, E. Kihlstrom,, V. Lagesson,, B. Wessen,, B. Szponar,, L. Larsson, and, C. Tagesson. 2004. Micro-organisms and volatile organic compounds in airborne dust from damp residences. Indoor Air 14:7482.
105. Norby, K.-C.,, A. S. Halstensen,, O. Elen,, P.-E. Clasen,, W. Langseth,, P. Kristensen, and, W. Eduard. 2004. Trichothecene mycotoxins and their determinants in settled dust related to grain production. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 11:7583.
106. Olsson, M.,, C. Lidman,, S. Latouche,, A. Bjorkman,, P. Roux,, E. Linder, and, M. Wahlgren. 1998. Identification of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis gene sequences in filtered air in hospital environments. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:17371740.
107. Palmgren, M. S.,, and L. S. Lee. 1986. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential. Environ. Health Perspect. 66:105108.
108. Panaccione, D. G.,, and C. M. Coyle. 2005. Abundant respirable ergot alkaloids from the common airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:31063111.
109. Papineni, R. S.,, and F. S. Rosenthal. 1997. The size distribution of droplets in the exhaled breath of healthy human subjects. J. Aerosol Med. 10:105116.
110. Pasanen, A.,, P. Kalliokoski,, P. Pasanen,, T. Salmi, and, A. Tossavainen. 1989. Fungi carried from farmers’ work into farm homes. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 50:631633.
111. Pasanen, A.,, K. Yli-Pietila,, P. Pasanen,, P. Kalliokoski, and, J. Tarhanen. 1999. Ergosterol content in various fungal species and biocontaminated building materials. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:138142.
112. Pedgley, D. E. 1991. Aerobiology: the atmosphere as a source and sink for microbes, p. 43–59. In J. H. Andrews and, S. S. Hirano (ed.), Microbial Ecology of Leaves. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
113. Prazmo, Z.,, J. Dutkiewicz, and, G. Cholewa. 2000. Gram-negative bacteria associated with timber as a potential respiratory hazard for woodworkers. Aerobiologia 16:275279.
114. Prazmo, Z.,, J. Dutkiewicz,, C. Skorska,, J. Sitkowska, and, G. Cholewa. 2003. Exposure to airborne gram-negative bacteria, dust, and endotoxin in paper factories. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 10:93100.
115. Prazmo, Z.,, E. Krysinska-Traczyk,, C. Skorska,, J. Sitkowska,, G. Cholewa, and, J. Dutkiewicz. 2003. Exposure to bioaerosols in a municipal sewage treatment plant. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 10:241248.
116. Rahkonen, P.,, M. Ettala, and, I. Loikkanen. 1987. Working conditions and hygiene at sanitary landfills in Finland. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 31:505513.
117. Ranalli, G.,, P. Principi, and, C. Sorlini. 2000. Bacterial aerosol emission from wastewater treatment plants: culture methods and bio-molecular tools. Aerobiologia 16:3946.
118. Randall, C. W.,, and J. O. Ledbetter. 1966. Bacterial air pollution from activated sludge units. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 27:506519.
119. Rao, C. Y.,, H. A. Burge, and, J. C. S. Chang. 1996. Review of quantitative standards and guidelines for fungi in indoor air. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 46:899908.
120. Rao, C. Y.,, J. D. Brain, and, H. A. Burge. 2000. Reduction of pulmonary toxicity of Stachybotrys chartarum spores by methanol extraction of mycotoxins. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:28172821.
121. Rao, C. Y.,, J. M. Cox-Ganser,, G. L. Chew,, G. Doekes, and, S. White. 2005. Use of surrogate markers of biological agents in air and settled dust samples to evaluate a water-damaged hospital. Indoor Air 15:9097.
122. Rautiala, S.,, T. Reponen,, A. Hyvarinen,, A. Nevalainen,, T. Husman,, A. Vehilainen, and, P. Kalliokoski. 1996. Exposure to airborne microbes during the repair of moldy buildings. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 57:279284.
123. Rautiala, S.,, T. Reponen,, A. Nevalainen,, T. Husman, and, P. Kalliokoski. 1998. Control of exposure to airborne viable microorganisms during remediation of moldy buildings; report of three case studies. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 59:455460.
124. Reinthaler, F. F.,, D. Haas,, G. Feierl,, R. Schlacher,, F. O. Pichler-Semmelrock,, M. Kock,, G. Wust,, O. Feenstra, and, E. Marth. 1999. Comparative investigations of airborne culturable microorganisms in selected waste treatment facilities and in neighbouring residential areas. Zentbl. Hyg. Umweltmed. 202:117.
125. Reynolds, S. J.,, A. J. Streifel, and, C. E. McJilton. 1990. Elevated airborne concentrations of fungi in residential and office environments. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 51:601604.
126. Rivera, F.,, G. Roy-Ocotla,, I. Rosas,, E. Ramirez,, P. Bonilla, and, F. Lares. 1987. Amoeba isolation from the atmosphere of Mexico City and environs. Environ. Res. 42:149154.
127. Rubin, S. A. 1997. Tuberculosis and atyptical mycobacterial infections in the 1990s. Radiographics 17:10511059.
128. Rylander, R.,, and R. Etzel. 1999. Introduction and summary: workshop on children’s health and indoor mold exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 107:465468.
129. Rylander, R.,, and B. Fogelmark. 1994. Inflammatory responses by inhalation of endotoxin and (1-3)-β-d-glucan. Am. J. Ind. Med. 25:101102.
130. Rylander, R.,, and Y. Megevand. 2000. Environmental risk factors for respiratory infections. Arch. Environ. Health 55:300303.
131. Rylander R.,, and J. Vesterlund. 1982. Airborne endotoxins in various occupational environments. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 93:399409.
132. Rylander, R.,, K. Persson,, H. Goto,, K. Yuasa, and, S. Tanaka. 1992. Airborne beta-1,3-glucan may be related to symptoms in sick buildings. Indoor Environ. 1:263267.
133. Salem, H.,, and D. E. Gardner. 1994. Health aspects of bioaerosols, p. 304–330. In B. Lighthart and, A. J. Mohr (ed.), Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols: Theory and Applications. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y.
134. Samson, R. A.,, J. Houbraken,, R. C. Summerbell,, B. Flannigan, and, J. D. Miller. 2001. Common and important species of fungi and actinomycetes in indoor environments, p. 287–473. In B. Flannigan,, R. A. Samson, and, J. D. Miller (ed.), Microorganisms in Home and Indoor Work Environments. Taylor & Francis, New York, N.Y.
135. Sattar, S. A.,, and M. K. Ijaz. 1987. Spread of viral infections by aerosols. Crit. Rev. Environ. Control 17:89131.
136. Sawyer, M. H.,, C. J. Chamberlain,, Y. N. Wu,, N. Aintablian, and, M. R. Wallace. 1994. Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in air samples from hospital rooms. J. Infect. Dis. 169:9194.
137. Schaal, K. P. 1991. Medical and microbiological problems arising from airborne infection in hospitals. J. Hosp. Infect. 18:451459.
138. Seal, D. V.,, and R. P. Clark. 1990. Electronic particle counting for evaluating the quality of air in operating theatres: a potential basis for standards? J. Appl. Bacteriol. 68:225230.
139. Sebastian, A.,, and L. Larsson. 2003. Characterization of the microbial community in indoor environments: a chemical-analytical approach. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:31033109.
140. Seuri, M.,, K. Husman,, H. Kinnunen,, M. Reiman,, R. Kreus,, P. Kuronen,, K. Lehtomaki, and, M. Paananen. 2000. An outbreak of respiratory diseases among workers at a water-damaged building—a case report. Indoor Air 10:138145.
141. Siersted, H. C.,, and S. Gravesen. 1993. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis after exposure to the yeast Rhodotorula rubra. Allergy 48:298299.
142. Simmons, R. B.,, L. J. Rose,, S. A. Crow, and, D. H. Ahearn. 1999. The occurrence and persistence of mixed biofilms in automobile air conditioning systems. Curr. Microbiol. 39:141145.
143. Slote, L. 1976. Viral aerosols—a potential occupationally related health threat in aerated wastewater treatment systems. J. Environ. Health 38:310314.
144. Snyder, J. W.,, and A. S. Weissfeld. 2003. Laboratory detection of potential agents of bioterrorism, p. 121–128. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller, and, R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
145. Sorenson, W. G. 1999. Fungal spores: hazardous to health? Environ. Health Perspect. 107:469472.
146. Sorenson, W. G.,, D. G. Frazer,, B. B. Jarvis,, J. Simpson, and, V. A. Robinson. 1987. Trichothecene mycotoxins in aerosolized conidia of Stachybotrys atra. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:13701375.
147. Spangler, J. D.,, and K. Sexton. 1983. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective. Science 221:917.
148. Stärk, K. D.,, C. J. Nicolet, and, J. Frey. 1998. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by air sampling with a nested PCR assay. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:543548.
149. Straatsma, G.,, R. A. Samson,, T. W. Olijnsma,, H. J. M. Opden Camp,, J. P. G. Gerrits, and, L. J. L. D. van Griensven. 1994. Ecology of thermophilic fungi in mushroom compost with emphasis on Scytalidium thermophilum and growth stimulation of Agaricus bisporus mycelium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:454458.
150. Swan, J. R. M.,, and B. Crook. 1998. Airborne micro-organisms associated with grain handling. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 30:715.
151. Teltsch, B.,, and E. Katzenelson. 1978. Airborne enteric bacteria and viruses from spray irrigation with waste-water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:290296.
152. Thorne, P. S.,, M. S. Kiekhaefer,, P. Whitten, and, K. J. Donham. 1992. Comparison of bioaerosol sampling methods in barns housing swine. Appl. Environ. Micro-biol. 58:25432551.
153. Tjade, O. H.,, and I. Gabor. 1980. Evaluation of airborne operating room bacteria with a Biap slit sampler. J. Hyg. Camb. 84:3740.
154. Tourville, D. R.,, W. I. Weiss,, P. T. Wertlake, and, G. M. Leudemann. 1972. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to contamination of home humidifier. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 49:245251.
155. Van Netten, C.,, R. Brands, and, D. Dill. 1997. Investigation and remediation of diesel converted trolley buses associated with extensive fungal growth and health complaints. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 58:726731.
156. Vesper, S.,, D. G. Dearborn,, I. Yike,, T. Allan,, J. Sobolewski,, S. F. Hinkley,, B. B. Jarvis, and, R. A. Haugland. 2000. Evaluation of Stachybotrys chartarum in the house of an infant with pulmonary hemorrhage: quantitative assessment before, during and after remediation. J. Urban Health 77:6885.
157. Wady, L.,, and L. K. Larsson. 2005. Determination of microbial volatile organic compounds adsorbed on house dust particles and gypsum board using SPME/GC-MS. Indoor Air 15:2732.
158. Walters, M.,, D. Milton,, L. Larsson, and, T. Ford. 1994. Airborne environmental endotoxin: a cross-validation of sampling and analysis techniques. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:9961005.
159. Wan, G. H.,, and C. S. Li. 1999. Indoor endotoxin and glucan in association with airway inflammation and systemic symptoms. Arch. Environ. Health 54:172179.
160. Warhurst, D. 1977. Humidifier fever: amoebae and allergic lung disease. Thorax 32:653663.
161. Wicklow, D. T.,, and O. L. Shotwell. 1983. Intrafungal distribution of aflatoxin among conidia and selerotia of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Can. J. Micro-biol. 29:15.
162. Wickman, H. H. 1994. Deposition, adhesion, and release of bioaerosols, p. 99–165. In B. Lighthart and, A. J. Mohr (ed.), Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols: Theory and Applications. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y.
163. Wickman, M.,, S. Gravesen,, S. L. Nordvall,, G. Pershagen, and, J. Sundell. 1992. Indoor viable dust-bound microfungi in relation to residential characteristics, living habits, and symptoms in atopic and control children. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 89:752759.
164. Wiener, S. L. 2000. Biological warfare defense, p. 119–146. In R. A. Zilinskas (ed.), Biological Warfare: Modern Offense and Defense. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, Colo.
165. Winn, W. C., Jr. 1988. Legionnaires disease: historical perspective. Clin. Microbiol. 1:6081.
166. Woodard, E. D.,, B. Friedlander,, R. J. Lesher,, W. Font,, R. Kinsey, and, F. T. Hearne. 1988. Outbreak of hyper-sensitivity pneumonitis in an industrial setting. JAMA 259:19651969.
167. Zeterberg, J. M. 1973. A review of respiratory virology and the spread of virulent and possibly antigenic viruses via air conditioning systems. Ann. Allergy 31:228234.
168. Zuravleff, J. J.,, V. L. Yu,, J. W. Shonnard,, J. D. Rihs, and, M. Best. 1983. Legionella pneumophila contamination of a hospital humidifier. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 128:657661.


Generic image for table

Adverse effects associated with exposure to airborne microorganisms

Citation: Stetzenbach L. 2007. Introduction to Aerobiology, p 925-938. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch73
Generic image for table

Classification of biological agents with potential use in bioterrorism

Citation: Stetzenbach L. 2007. Introduction to Aerobiology, p 925-938. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch73
Generic image for table

Sources and amplification sites of indoor biocontaminants and associated airborne or surface concentrations

Citation: Stetzenbach L. 2007. Introduction to Aerobiology, p 925-938. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch73

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error