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Chapter 76 : Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air

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Abstract:

The fate and transport of microorganisms in the atmosphere are complicated issues involving many physical and biochemical factors. The transport of bioaerosols is primarily governed by hydrodynamic and kinetic factors, while their fate is dependent upon the specific biological composition, chemical makeup, and the meteorological parameters to which they are exposed. Local atmospheric conditions such as wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity (RH) are strongly influenced by the features of large-scale flow fields, geographical locations, and local topography. The most significant environmental factors influencing viability are RH, solar irradiance, temperature, and oxygen concentration. Additional influences are exerted through air ions and open-air factors (OAF). The state of water and the water content associated with bioaerosols are fundamental factors influencing the fate or viability of these microorganisms. Studies to determine the effect of temperature on aerosol stability have generally shown that increases in temperature tend to decrease the viability of airborne microorganisms. RH, water activity, oxygen concentration, aerosol age, and the presence of other gases all influence the effect radiation exerts on airborne microorganisms. Data are presented in a section relating aerosol stability or infectivity studies of bacteria, animal viruses, bacterial viruses (phages), and other microorganisms. Before a bioaerosol project is initiated, a substantial amount of study must be completed to determine methods to maximize the recovery of aerosolized microorganisms. These studies should include effects concerning sampling media, counting media, generation media, and the makeup of test atmospheres.

Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76

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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
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Semliki forest virus
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FIGURE 1

Particles of <5 μm tend to follow flow streamlines around obstructions. Particles of <5 μm tend to cross streamlines and impact on obstructions.

Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Aerosol stability parameters for selected bacteria

Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
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TABLE 2

Aerosol stability parameters for selected viruses

Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Aerosol stability parameters for selected phages

Citation: Mohr A. 2007. Fate and Transport of Microorganisms in Air, p 961-971. In Hurst C, Crawford R, Garland J, Lipson D, Mills A, Stetzenbach L (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815882.ch76

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