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Chapter 89 : Fungal Solid-State Fermentation Systems for Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass: Process Protocol and Applications
Fungal Solid-State Fermentation Systems for Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass: Process Protocol and Applications, Page 1 of 2< Previous page Next page > /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815882/9781555813796_Chap89-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815882/9781555813796_Chap89-2.gif
This chapter reviews the methods for fungal solid-state fermentation (SSF) for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. The major chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass include cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. The SSF process has great potential for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. The most efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass are reported to be higher fungi, including white rot fungi and some mushrooms. SSF has great potential in microbial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel, enzymes, animal feed, and biofertilizer. Major fungi involved in lignocellulosic biomass conversion belong to the groups Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, and Basidiomycetes. The major disadvantage of spores is that they are metabolically dormant, and hence metabolic activities must be induced and the appropriate enzyme systems must be synthesized before the fungus begins to utilize the substrate and grow. The solid substrate should be continuously mixed for proper aeration at selected intervals to prevent lumping and to obtain uniform mold growth and bioconversion. The lignin-degrading system of the white rot fungi has potential applications in the area of lignocellulose bioconversion by SSF. The selection of a leaching method such as percolation, pulsed plug flow extraction, countercurrent extraction, or hydraulic pressing is probably the most important step in SSF downstream processing, since the economics of the process will be dictated by the leached product concentration. After the leaching step, the extract may be clarified by either filtration or centrifugation to remove suspended cells, spores, or solid residues.