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Chapter 2 : Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the zoonotic diseases caused by some indigenous agents of common laboratory animals which may pose an occupational hazard to animal handlers. The intent is to inform those working in animal facilities, including clinical and other research scientists and biological safety personnel, about zoonotic pathogens associated with animals used in laboratory research. Potential zoonotic hazards are associated with many laboratory animals, but the actual transmission of zoonotic disease has become uncommon due to the increased use of animals specifically bred for research over many generations. The majority of small laboratory animals (e.g., mouse, rat, and rabbit) used in research in the United States have been produced commercially in highly controlled environments under the oversight of veterinary care programs. The chapter addresses the intrinsic agents of potential significance in zoonotic diseases associated with eight animals: all of the animals from the primary category (dogs, macaques, mice, pigs, rats, rabbits) along with cats and sheep from the secondary category. It also provides some basic information on zoonotic diseases from common laboratory animals.

Citation: Fleming D. 2006. Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals, p 19-33. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Mouse mammary tumor virus
0.54673225
Simian foamy virus
0.41943964
Canine distemper virus
0.41317934
0.54673225
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References

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1. American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. 2003. Role delineation document. [Online.] http://www.aclam.org/gen_rdd.html.
2. Baker, D. G. 2000. Pathogens of mice, rats, and rabbits, p. 11–25. In D. O. Fleming and, D. L. Hunt (ed.), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
3. Baker, D. G. 2003. Natural Pathogens of Laboratory Animals: Their Effects on Research. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Fatal Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection following a mucocutaneous exposure and interim recommendations for worker protection. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47:10731076, 1083.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Multistate outbreak of monkeypox—Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:537540.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 1999. Biosafety in Microbiology and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
7. Cohen, J. I.,, D. S. Davenport,, J. A. Stewart,, S. Deitchman,, J. K. Hilliard,, L. E. Chapman, andthe B Virus Working Group. 2002. Recommendations for prevention of and therapy for exposure to B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1). Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:11911203.
8. Fox, J. G.,, C. E. Newcomer,, and H. Rozmiarek. 2002. Selected zoonoses and other health hazards, p. 1059–1105. In J. Fox,, L. Anderson,, F. Loew, and, F. Quimby (ed.), Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y.
9. Hankenson, F. C.,, N. A. Johnson,, B. J. Weigler, and, R. F. Di Giacomo. 2003. Overview: zoonoses of occupational health importance in contemporary laboratory animal research. Comp. Med. 53:570601.
10. Health Canada, Office of Laboratory Security. 2001. Canadian Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for microorganisms. [Online.] http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/index.html#menu.
11. Heymann, D. L. (ed.). 2004. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 18th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
12. Krauss, H.,, A. Weber,, M. Appel,, B. Enders,, H. D. Isenberg,, H. G. Schiefer,, W. Slenczka,, A. von Graevenitz, and, H. Zahner. 2003. Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible from Animals to Humans, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
13. National Research Council. 1989. Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for the Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
14. National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
15. National Research Council. 2003. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
16. Newcomer, C. E. 2000. Zoonoses, p. 121–150. In D. O. Fleming and, D. L. Hunt (ed.), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Natural pathogens of common laboratory animals

Citation: Fleming D. 2006. Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals, p 19-33. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch2
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TABLE 2

Body systems known or likely to be affected by canine pathogens

Citation: Fleming D. 2006. Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals, p 19-33. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch2
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TABLE 3

Modes of transmission and methods of control for selected pathogens of mice and rats

Citation: Fleming D. 2006. Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals, p 19-33. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch2
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TABLE 4

Reported occupationally acquired infections associated with experimentally or naturally infected research animals

Citation: Fleming D. 2006. Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals, p 19-33. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch2
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TABLE 5

Zoonotic helminth parasites of laboratory animals

Citation: Fleming D. 2006. Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals, p 19-33. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch2
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TABLE 6

Zoonotic ectoparasites of laboratory animals

Citation: Fleming D. 2006. Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals, p 19-33. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch2
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TABLE 7

Zoonoses associated with commonly used laboratory animals (cats, dogs, macaques, mice, pigs, rabbits, rats, sheep)

Citation: Fleming D. 2006. Indigenous and Pathogenic Agents of Research Animals, p 19-33. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch2

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