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Chapter 9 : Viral Agents of Human Disease: Biosafety Concerns

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Abstract:

The majority of viral agents in an early survey that documented 222 viral infections were accounted for by the viruses causing YF, Rift Valley fever (RVF), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM). Viruses are classified based on the type and organization of the viral genome (double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, RNA and DNA reverse transcribing, double-stranded RNA, negative-sense single-stranded RNA, positive-sense single-stranded RNA, and subviral agents), the strategy of viral replication, and the structure of the virion. Arboviruses cause severe human disease, have wide geographic distribution, and have emerged as major pathogens. Epidemiological data suggest that there are serotype differences among the dengue viruses in their ability to produce large outbreaks of human disease and in their ability to produce severe clinical disease. This chapter talks about clinical manifestation of viral disease. The have been responsible for over 253 reported laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) and six deaths as documented by laboratory surveys and demonstrate the propensity of these viruses to aerosolize and cause severe infection. Interferon alfacon-1 was evaluated in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus-infected patients in a pilot experiment. Other type 1 interferons have been evaluated in experimentally infected nonhuman primates and tissue culture models of SARS-CoV infection. These studies have suggested efficacy, but to date there are no studies demonstrating efficacy in humans. The current recommendations focus on supportive care and containment of infected patients. Postaccident management of a viral exposure should be part of a carefully planned contingency that is specific for each laboratory.

Citation: Paragas J, Endy T. 2006. Viral Agents of Human Disease: Biosafety Concerns, p 179-207. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch9

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Mouse mammary tumor virus
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Eastern equine encephalitis virus
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Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
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Classical swine fever virus
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FIGURE 1

Risk management matrix for viral pathogens.

Citation: Paragas J, Endy T. 2006. Viral Agents of Human Disease: Biosafety Concerns, p 179-207. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch9
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Clinical presentation and viremia in patients with CCHF. Adapted from .

Citation: Paragas J, Endy T. 2006. Viral Agents of Human Disease: Biosafety Concerns, p 179-207. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch9
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Summary of previously published laboratory-associated viral infections

Citation: Paragas J, Endy T. 2006. Viral Agents of Human Disease: Biosafety Concerns, p 179-207. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch9

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