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Chapter 14 : Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities

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Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter deals with basic biomedical and clinical laboratories at biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) and with containment laboratories, with the main emphasis on BSL-3 and their enhancements. In BSL-4 cabinet laboratories the focus is on enhanced primary containment by working with viable agents in a class III biological safety cabinets (BSCs). Primary barriers are specialized items designed for capture or containment of biological agents, e.g., BSCs, chemical fume hoods (CFHs), and animal cage dump stations. Secondary barriers are facility-related design features that separate the laboratory from nonlaboratory areas or from the outside. An administrative area, physically separated from all hazardous aspects of laboratory work, should be planned near the main entry to each building or floor. Caging systems as primary containment are an important consideration in the risk assessment and design of animal BSL-3 (ABSL-3) facilities. Historically, laboratories had fairly simple static heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Air change rates vary depending on specific needs, types of HVAC systems, number of exhausted containment devices per laboratory, and cooling requirements of rooms. Laboratories often have two types of drainage systems: sanitary and laboratory waste. A plan must be developed to provide a clear method for distribution of HVAC, plumbing, and electrical systems to the facility to allow for ease of operation and maintenance. Clinical laboratories are one of the most successful users of flexible casework. Cabinets for flammable and acid storage should be provided in each laboratory where chemicals are used and stored.

Citation: Crane J, Richmond J. 2006. Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities, p 273-293. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Carbon Dioxide
0.46482575
Electron Microscopes
0.43497694
Risk Assessment
0.4301827
Culture Media
0.4275202
Ionizing Radiation
0.4275202
Culture Media
0.4275202
Ionizing Radiation
0.4275202
0.46482575
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Percentage of building construction cost per new laboratory component.

Citation: Crane J, Richmond J. 2006. Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities, p 273-293. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Photo of typical BSL-2 laboratory.

Citation: Crane J, Richmond J. 2006. Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities, p 273-293. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Example layout of a small BSL-3 suite.

Citation: Crane J, Richmond J. 2006. Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities, p 273-293. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Example layouts of typical BSL-3 tissue culture rooms.

Citation: Crane J, Richmond J. 2006. Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities, p 273-293. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Photo of typical BSL-3 laboratory.

Citation: Crane J, Richmond J. 2006. Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities, p 273-293. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Example layout of an ABSL-3 suite.

Citation: Crane J, Richmond J. 2006. Design of Biomedical Laboratory Facilities, p 273-293. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch14
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References

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1. American Institute of Architects, Committee on Architecture for Health. 2001. Guidelines for Construction and Equipment of Hospital and Medical Facilities. American Institute of Architects Press, Washington, D.C.
2. ASHRAE Technical Committee. 1999. Industrial applications, laboratories, p. 13.1–13.19. In ASHRAE Handbook, Applications. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New York, N.Y.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Goals for working safely with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical, public health, and research laboratories. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/tb/tbdoc2.htm.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 1999. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
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7. College of American Pathologists. 1985. Medical Laboratory Planning and Design. College of American Pathologists, Skokie, Ill.
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9. Crane, J. T., and, J. F. Riley. 1997. Design issues in the comprehensive BSL2 and BSL3 laboratory, p. 63–114. In J. Y. Richmond (ed.), Designing a Modern Micro-biological/Biomedical Laboratory. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
10. Crane, J. T., and, J. F. Riley. 1999. Design of BSL3 laboratories, p. 111–119. In J. Y. Richmond (ed.), Anthology of Biosafety, vol. 1. Perspectives on Laboratory Design. American Biological Safety Association, Mundelein, Ill.
11. Department of Labor. 1999a. 29 CFR Part 1910.1450, Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories, Final Rule. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
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13. Department of Labor. 1999c. 29 CFR Part 1990, Identification, Classification, and Regulation of Potential Occupational Carcinogens. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
14. Dolan, D. C. 1981. Design for biomedical research facilities: architectural features of biomedical design, p. 75–86. In D. G. Fox (ed.), Design of Biomedical Research Facilities: Proceedings of a Cancer Research Safety Symposium, 1979. NIH publication 81-2305. Frederick Cancer Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
15. Kuehne, R. W. 1973. Biological containment facility for studying infectious disease. Appl. Microbiol. 26:239241.
16. National Fire Protection Association. 2004. NFPA 45 Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals. National Fire Protection Agency, Quincy, Mass.
17. National Institutes of Health. 2002. NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines), 59 FR 34496 (July 5, 1994), as amended. [Online; the current amended version can be accessed at http://www4.od.nih.gov/oba/rac/guidelines/guidelines.html.]
18. National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
19. Richmond, J. Y. (ed.). 2002. Anthology of Biosafety, vol. 5. BSL-4 Laboratories. American Biological Safety Association, Mundelein, Ill.
20. Riley, J. F.,, F. C. Bullock, and, J. T. Crane. 1999. Facility guidelines for BSL2 and BSL3 biological laboratories, p. 99–109. In J. Y. Richmond (ed.), Anthology of Biosafety, vol. 1. Perspectives on Laboratory Design. American Biological Safety Association, Mundelein, Ill.
21. Sessler, S. M., and, R. M. Hoover. 1983. Laboratory Fume Hood Noise, Heating Piping and Air Conditioning. Penton/PC Reinhold, Cleveland, Ohio.
22. West, D. L., and, M. A. Chatigny. 1986. Design of micro-biological and biomedical research facilities, p. 124–137. In B. M. Miller (ed.), Laboratory Safety: Principles and Practices. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.

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