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Chapter 16 : Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes

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Abstract:

In a review of laboratory-associated infections (LAIs), the case is made that there is renewed interest in biosafety in laboratories and health care facilities because of the emergence of new infectious agents (human immunodeficiency virus), continuing problems with known agents (hepatitis B virus), and reemergence of old agents (). Maximum-containment glove boxes, now called class III biological safety cabinets (BSCs), were developed during the 1940s, and partial-containment fume hood-like class I BSCs made their appearance in the mid-1950s. The first publication of microbiological testing of the performance of “laminar flow biological safety cabinets,” as they were called then, was in 1968. The term “minute quantities” means that such chemicals will not be weighed out and diluted in the BSC. These activities are to be performed in appropriate equipment such as fume hoods or glove boxes. Type A1 cabinets meet or exceed the requirements of the microbiological tests, but they are not suitable for use with volatile hazardous chemicals. The microbiological aerosol tracer test is not suitable for performance testing of BSCs in the working laboratory because of the spores used as the tracer. A safety professional should be consulted to perform a risk assessment before selecting or using a glove box. If the risk assessment results in a requirement for a primary barrier that is not satisfied by standard models of available equipment, modifications of existing designs or special designs can often solve the problem.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Fume hood basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Class I BSC basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Class II type A1 cabinet basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Representative performance envelope of a class II type A2 BSC. The BSC passes the microbiological tests within the performance envelope.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Class II type A2 cabinet basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Class II type A2-exhausted cabinet basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Vapor handling characteristics of class II BSCs. Results from the mathematical model. Given an estimated rate of volatile generation in the cabinet, and measured cabinet airflows, the model will calculate a volatile concentration in the cabinet downflow air.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Class II type B1 (B) basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Class II type B1 (NSF definition) basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Class II type B2 cabinet basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Basic design and airflow schematic for a VFCB, showing unfiltered outward airflow.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Basic design schematic of a glove box system to handle animals during inhalation exposure.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

Class III BSC basic design schematic.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

Basic design schematic of a pharmacy glove box for aseptic medication preparations.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

Basic design schematic of a pharmacy glove box for aseptic preparation of medications containing hazardous chemicals.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 16
FIGURE 16

Basic design schematic of a through-the-wall class III system for handling potentially hazardous unknown terrorism samples.

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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Image of FIGURE 17
FIGURE 17

Basic design schematic of a class II-style enclosure for automated laboratory equipment (shown with right side access window open).

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Overview of primary barrier applications at various BSLs and with volatile hazards

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Comparison of building exhaust airflow rates and negative static pressure requirements for various types of 4-ft primary barriers

Citation: Stuart D, Eagleson D, Quint, Jr. C. 2006. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 303-323. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch16

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