1887

Chapter 17 : Personal Respiratory Protection

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Personal Respiratory Protection, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815899/9781555813390_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815899/9781555813390_Chap17-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses the subject of respiratory protection to individuals working in the field of microbiology. Respirators can be divided into two general classes: atmosphere-supplying respirators and air-purifying respirators. Particles may be captured on a filter by both mechanical and electrostatic mechanisms. Four mechanical mechanisms contribute to particle deposition: interception, diffusion, gravity, and inertial impaction. There are very few recommendations for use of respiratory protection to control exposures to specific aerosolized microorganisms, or bioaerosols as they are sometimes called. Assigned protection factors (APFs) are designated by type of respirator. In simplified terms, the APF is the factor by which a properly selected and fitted respirator will reduce contaminant exposures. If an APF is 10, then the concentration of contaminant that reaches the wearer’s lungs will be reduced by a factor of 10. A qualitative method has been proposed for selecting respirators for protection in infectious aerosol environments which is based on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) respirator decision logic. Respirator selection will be based on the best available practices, most current knowledge, and professional judgment and reemphasizes the need to utilize engineering and administrative controls when possible.

Citation: McCullough N. 2006. Personal Respiratory Protection, p 325-340. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch17

Key Concept Ranking

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
0.5797954
0.5797954
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Supplied-air suit. (Courtesy of ILC Dover, Frederica, Del.)

Citation: McCullough N. 2006. Personal Respiratory Protection, p 325-340. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(A) Filtering facepiece respirator, type N95. (B) Combination filtering facepiece respirator, type N95, and surgical mask. (C) Full facepiece respirator. (D) PAPR with hood. (E) PAPR with loose-fitting facepiece. (Courtesy of 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.)

Citation: McCullough N. 2006. Personal Respiratory Protection, p 325-340. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815899.ch17
1. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1987. NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 87-116. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2. American Industrial Hygiene Association. 1991. Respiratory Protection: a Manual and Guideline, 2nd ed. C. E. Colton,, L. R. Birkner, and, L. M. Brosseau (ed.). American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, Va.
3. American National Standards Institute. 1992. American National Standard for Respirator Protection (ANSI Z88.2). American National Standards Institute, New York, N.Y.
4. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 2004. 2004 TLVs and BEIs. American Conference of Governmental Industrial, Hygienists, Cincinnati, Ohio.
5. American Industrial Hygiene Association. 1991. Glossary, p. 123–125. In C. E. Colton, L. R. Birkner, and L. M. Brosseau (ed.), Respiratory Protection: a Manual and Guideline, 2nd ed. American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, Va.
6. American National Standards Institute. 1992. American National Standard for Respirator Protection (ANSI Z88.2). American National Standards Institute, New York, N.Y.
7. Birkner,, J. S. 1991. Supplied-air suits, p. 65–66. In C. E. Colton,, L. R. Birkner, and, L. M. Brosseau (ed.), Respiratory Protection: a Manual and Guideline, 2nd ed. American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, Va.
8. Brosseau,, L. M., N. V. McCullough, and, D. Vesley. 1997. Mycobacterial aerosol collection efficiency by respirator and surgical mask filters under varying conditions of flow and humidity. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 12 (6):435–445.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993a. Hantavirus infection—Southwestern United States. Interim recommendations for risk reduction. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 42(RR-11):113.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993b. Update: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome—United States. Interim recommendations for risk reduction. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 42:816820..
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care facilities, 1994. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43(RR-13):1132.
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Safety, p. 7–13. In J. N. Mills,, J. E. Childs,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. J. Peters, and, W. M. Velleca (ed.), Methods for Trapping and Sampling Small Mammals for Virologic Testing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997a. Compendium of psittacosis (chlamydiosis) control, 1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46(RR-13):113.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997b. Guidelines for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46 (RR-1):1–79. January 3, 1997. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/preview/mmwrhtml/00045365.htm.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Hantavirus: laboratory information. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hanta/labguide.htm#part2.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Blastomycosis acquired occupationally during prairie dog relocation—Colorado, 1998. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48:98100..
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001a. Basic laboratory protocols for the presumptive identification of Bacillus anthracis. 4/18/01. [Online.] http://www.bt.cdc.gov/Agent/Anthrax/Anthracis20010417.pdf.
18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001b. Interim recommendations for protecting workers from exposure to Bacillus anthracis in work sites where mail is handled or processed. 10/31/01. [Online.] http://www.bt.cdc.gov/documentsapp/anthrax/10312001/han51.asp.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Comprehensive procedures for collecting environmental samples for culturing Bacillus anthracis. Revised April 2002. [Online.] http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/environmental-sampling-apr2002.asp.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Interim domestic guidance on the use of respirators to prevent transmission of SARS. May 6, 2003. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/pdf/respirators-sars.pdf.
21. Centers for Disase Control and Prevention. 2004. Public health guidance for community-level preparedness and response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) version 2. Supplement F: laboratory guidance. Appendix F5—laboratory biosafety guidelines for handling and processing specimens associated with SARS-CoV. May 21, 2004. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/guidance/f/pdf/f.pdf.
22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Center for Infectious Diseases. 1997. Histoplasmosis: Protecting Workers at Risk. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication no. 97-146.
23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 1993. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 3rd ed. J. Y. Richmond and, R. W. McKinney (ed.). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 1997. Proposed Guidelines for Goals for Working Safely with M. tuberculosis in Clinical, Public Health, and Research Laboratories. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 1999. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
26. Chen, S.-K., D. Vesley,, L. M. Brosseau, and, J. H. Vincent. 1994. Evaluation of single-use masks and respirators for protection of health care workers against mycobacterial aerosols. Am. J. Infect. Control. 22:6574..
27. Compressed Gas Association. 1989. Commodity Specification for Air (ANSI/CGA G-7.1). Compressed Gas Association, Arlington, Va.
28. Försvarets forskningsanstalt. 1992. Protective equipment, p. 58–64. In R. Ivarsson,, H. Nilsson, and, J. Santesson (ed.), A Briefing Book on Chemical Weapons, no. 16. Försvarets forskningsanstalt, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
29. Hinds, W. C. 1982. Aerosol Technology, p. 164–186. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.
30. Johnston,, A. R. 1991. Introduction to selection and use, p. 25–35. In C. E. Colton,, L. R. Birkner, and, L. M. Brosseau (ed.), Respiratory Protection: a Manual and Guideline, 2nd ed. American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, Va.
31. McCullough, N. V., and, L. M. Brosseau. 1999. Selecting respirators for control of worker exposure to infectious aerosols. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 20:136144..
32. Moyer, E. S. 1986. Respirator filtration efficiency testing, p. 167–180. In R. R. Raber (ed.), Fluid Filtration: Gas. ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa.
33. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1987a. NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 87-108. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio.
34. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1987b. NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 87-116. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio.
35. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1993. Martin County Courthouse and Constitutional Office Building, Stuart Florida. HETA 93-1110-2575. NIOSH Publications Office, Cincinnati, Ohio.
36. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1996. NIOSH Guide to the Selection and Use of Particulate Respirators Certified Under 42 CFR 84. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 96-101. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio.
37. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2001. Protecting investigators peforming environmental sampling for Bacillus anthracis: personal protective equipment. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/unp-anthrax-ppe.html.
38. New York City Department of Health. 1993. Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Stachybotrys atra in Indoor Environments. New York City Human Resources Administration, New York, N.Y.
39. Nicas, M. 1995. Respiratory protection and the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Am. J. Ind. Med. 27:317333..
40. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1980. Respiratory protection. In Code of Federal Regulations Title 30, Part 11. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
41. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1996. CPL 2.106 Enforcement Procedures and Scheduling for Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, D.C.
42. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1997. Occupational exposure to tuberculosis; proposed rule. Fed. Regist. 62:5415954309..
43. Pippen, D. J., R. A. Verderame, and, K. K. Weber. 1987. Efficacy of face masks in preventing inhalation of airborne contaminants. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 45:319323..
44. Qian,, Y., K. Willeke,, S. A. Grinshpun,, J. Donnelly, and, C. C. Coffey. 1998. Performance of N95 respirators: filtration efficiency for airborne microbial and inert particles. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 59:128132..
45. United States Army Environmental Hygiene Agency. 1992. Managing health hazards associated with bird and bat excrement. USAEHA technical guideline no. 142. [Online.] http://chppm-www.apgea.army.mil/ento/tg142.htm.
46. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1993. Respiratory protective devices; tests for permissibility; fees, p. 47–111. In Code of Federal Regulations Title 30, Part 11. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
47. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1996. Approval of respiratory protective devices, p. 528–593. In Code of Federal Regulations Title 42, Part 84. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
48. Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services. 1987. Control of Legionella in Cooling Towers: Summary Guidelines. Wisconsin Department of Health, Madison.
49. OSHA’s Respiratory Protection Advisor: http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/respiratory_advisor/main-page.html
50. NIOSH’s respirator information website: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/respirators/
51. NIOSH education and research centers: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/oep/centers.html
52. OHSA training information: http://www.oshaslc.gov/Training/
53. American Industrial Hygiene Association (phone, 703-849-8888): http://www.aiha.org/
54. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (phone, 513-742-2020): http://www.acgih.org/.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Typical components, facepieces, and clean-air sources for commonly used respirators

Citation: McCullough N. 2006. Personal Respiratory Protection, p 325-340. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Particulate filter classes for nonpowered, air-purifying respirators

Citation: McCullough N. 2006. Personal Respiratory Protection, p 325-340. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

APFs for commonly used respirators

Citation: McCullough N. 2006. Personal Respiratory Protection, p 325-340. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Recommendations relating to respirator use for biosafety applications

Citation: McCullough N. 2006. Personal Respiratory Protection, p 325-340. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch17

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error