1887

Chapter 20 : Decontamination and Disinfection

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Decontamination and Disinfection, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815899/9781555813390_Chap20-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815899/9781555813390_Chap20-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter describes basic strategies for decontaminating surfaces, items, and areas in laboratories to eliminate the possibility of transmission of infectious agents to laboratory workers, the general public, and the environment. Emphasis is placed on the general approaches to decontamination practices. The principles of sterilization and disinfection are discussed and compared in the context of decontamination procedures used in laboratories. The definitions of sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis, decontamination, and sanitization are reviewed in the chapter to avoid misuse and confusion. The definitions and implied capabilities of each inactivation procedure are discussed with an emphasis on achieving and, in some cases, monitoring each stage of microbial reduction. Decontamination in the microbiology laboratory requires great care. It may entail disinfection of work surfaces or decontamination of equipment so that it is safe to handle. CD gas sterilization can be used for decontamination of laboratory rooms, equipment, glove boxes, and incubators. Recommendations for the decontamination of items and areas contaminated with (anthrax) spores are based on two historical sources. The first is the industrial setting, where animal hides and hairs are processed. The second is the laboratory setting, where biological safety protocols have been developed to address decontamination of high concentrations of anthrax spores after spills in the laboratory. Anthrax is unique among the agents of bioterrorism because the etiologic agent is a bacterial spore that is more resistant than other pathogens. Appropriate materials and methods for decontamination, disinfection, and sterilization are required for the safe conduct of work with biohazardous agents.

Citation: Favero M, Arduino M. 2006. Decontamination and Disinfection, p 373-381. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Central Nervous System Diseases
0.44116282
Environmental Microbiology
0.42096877
0.44116282
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815899.ch20
1. Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Comprehensive Guide to Steam Sterilization and Sterility Assurance in Health Care Facilities, in press. Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, Arlington, Va.
2. Baier, M., A. Schwarz, and, M. Mielke. 2004. Activity of an alkaline ‘cleaner’ in the inactivation of the scrapie agent. J. Hosp. Infect. 57:8084..
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52 (RR-10):1–48. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dh8p/pdf/guidelines/Enviro_guide_03.pdf.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 2006. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. L. C. Chosewood and D. E. Wilson (ed.). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.
5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2005. Protection of Laboratory Workers from Occupationally Acquired Infections. Approved guideline, 3rd ed. CLSI M29-A3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, Pa.
6. Favero, M. 1998. Developing indicators for sterilization, p. 119–132. In W. A. Rutala (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization and Antisepsis in Health Care. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc., Champlain, N.Y.
7. Favero, M. 2001. Sterility assurance: concepts for patient safety, p. 110–119. In W. A. Rutala (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization and Antisepsis: Principles and Practices in Healthcare Facilities. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc., Washington, D.C.
8. Favero, M., and, W. Bond. 2001. Chemical disinfection of medical surgical material, p. 881–917. In S. S. Block (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 5th ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
9. Fichet,, G., E. Comoy,, C. Duval,, K. Antloga,, C. Dehen,, A. Bosenge,, G. McDonnell,, P. Bosenge,, C. Ida Lasmezas, and, J. P. Deslys. 2004. Novel methods for dis-infection of prioncontaminated medical devices. Lancet 364:521526..
10. Fink, R.,, D. F. Liberman,, K. Murphy,, D. Lupo, and, E. Israeli. 1988. Biological safety cabinets, decontamination or sterilization with paraformaldehyde. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 49:277279..
11. Graham, G. S., and, J. R. Rickloff. 1992. Development of VHP sterilization technology. J. Healthcare Mater. Manag. 10:54, 5658.
12. Hawley,, R. J.,, and J. P. Kozlovac. 2004. Decontamination, p. 333–348. In L. Lindler,, F. Lebeda, and, G. Korch (ed.), Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism. Humana Press, Totowa, N.J.
13. Heckert,, R. A.,, M. Best,, L. T. Jordan,, G. C. Dulac,, D. L. Eddington, and, W. G. Sterritt. 1997. Efficacy of vaporized hydrogen peroxide against exotic animal viruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:39163918..
14. Jackson,, G. S.,, E. McKintosh,, E. Flechsig,, K. Prodromidou,, P. Bosenge,, J. Linehan,, S. Bosenge,, A. R. Clarke,, C. Weissmann, and, J. Collinge. 2005. An enzyme-detergent method for effective prion decontamination of surgical steel. J. Gen. Virol. 86:869878..
15. Jernigan,, D. B., p. L. Raghunathan,, B. P. Bell,, R. Bosenge,, E. A. Bresnitz,, J. C. Winkelman,, M. Bosenge,, M. Cohen,, T. Bosenge,, M. Fischer,, C. Bosenge,, K. S. Griffith,, J. Bosenge,, J. L. Hadler,, J. A. Winkelman,, R. Bosenge,, L. R. Petersen,, M. Bosenge,, R. Pinner,, T. Bosenge,, C. P. Quinn,, J. Bosenge,, D. Reissman,, N. Bosenge,, A. Schuchat,, W. J. Shieh,, L. Bosenge,, D. L. Swerdlow,, F. C. Winkelman,, M. Bosenge,, J. W. Ward,, I. Bosenge,, S. Wiersma,, K. Bosenge,, S. Zaki,, D. A. Ashford,, B. A. Winkelman,, S. Bosenge,, J. Hughes,, D. Bosenge,, J. P. Koplan,, J. L. Gerberding, and the National Anthrax Epidemiologic Investigation Team. 2002. Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:10191028..
16. Johnson,, J. W.,, J. F. Arnold,, S. L. Nail, and, E. Renzi. 1992. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilization of freeze dryers. J. Parenter. Sci. Technol. 46:215225..
17. Klapes, N. A., and, D. Vesley. 1990. Vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:503506..
18. Knapp,, J. E.,, and D. L. Battisti. 2001. Chlorine dioxide, p. 215–227. In S. Block (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 5th ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
19. Krause, J., G. McDonnell, and, H. Riedesel. 2001. Biodecontamination of animal rooms and heat-sensitive equipment with vaporized hydrogen peroxide. Contemp. Top. Lab. Anim. Sci. 40:1821..
20. Lemmer, K.,, M. Mielke,, G. Pauli, and, M. Beekes. 2004. Decontamination of surgical instruments from prion proteins: in vitro studies on the detachment, destabilization and degradation of PrPSc bound to steel surfaces. J. Gen. Virol. 85:38053816..
21. Race, R. E., and, G. J. Raymond. 2004. Inactivation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion) agents by Environ LpH. J. Virol. 78:21642165..
22. Rhame,, F. S. 1998. The inanimate environment, p. 299–324. In J. V. Bennett and, P. S. Brachmann (ed.), Hospital Infections, 4th ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, Pa.
23. Rutala, W. A. (ed.). 2004. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Antisepsis: Principles, Practices, Challenges, and New Research. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Washington, D.C.
24. Rutula, W. A., and, D. J. Weber. 2001. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: recommendations for disinfection and sterilization. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32 :1348–1356.
25. Rutala, W. A., and, D. J. Weber. 2004. Registration of disinfectants based on relative microbicidal activity. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 25:333341..
26. Spaulding, E. H. 1972. Chemical disinfection and antisepsis in the hospital. J. Hosp. Res. 9:531..
27. Spotts Whitney,, E. A.,, M. E. Beatty,, T. H. Taylor, Jr.,, R. Bosenge,, J. Sobel,, M. J. Arduino, and, D. A. Ashford. 2003. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:623627..
28. Taylor, D. M. 2003. Preventing accidental transmission of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Br. Med. Bull. 66:293303..
29. Tearle, P. 2003. Decontamination by fumigation. Commun. Dis. Public. Health 6:166168..
30. Vesley, D., J. L. Lauer, and, R. J. Hawley. 2000. Decontamination, sterilization, disinfection, and anti-sepsis, p. 383–402. In D. O. Fleming and D. L. Hunt (ed.), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices. 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
31. Weber, D. J., and, W. A. Rutala. 1998. Occupational risks associated with the use of selected disinfectants and sterilants, p. 211–226. In W. A. Rutala (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization and Antisepsis in Health Care. Polyscience Publications, Champlain, N.Y.
32. World Health Organization. 2000. WHO infection control guidelines for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Report of a WHO consultation, Geneva, Switzerland, 23–26 March 1999. [Online.] http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/bse/WHO_CDS_CSR_APH_2000_3/en/.
33. Yan, Z.,, L. Stitz,, P. Heeg,, E. Pfaff, and, K. Roth. 2004. Infectivity of prion protein bound to stainless steel wires: a model for testing decontamination procedures for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 25:280283.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Descending order of resistance to germicidal chemicals

Citation: Favero M, Arduino M. 2006. Decontamination and Disinfection, p 373-381. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Activity levels of selected liquid germicides

Citation: Favero M, Arduino M. 2006. Decontamination and Disinfection, p 373-381. In Fleming D, Hunt D (ed), Biological Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815899.ch20

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error