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Chapter 121 : Autoantibodies to Glycolipids in Peripheral Neuropathy

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Abstract:

Antiglycolipid antibodies are viewed as forming an important part of the natural autoantibody repertoire directed towards microbial carbohydrate structures, which has the potential to be expanded in both specific and nonspecific ways. This may explain their ubiquitous presence in both healthy and diseased patient populations and may account for some of the misleading studies that have claimed disease-specific associations, further confounded by technical difficulties in their measurement. This chapter only addresses their relationship to autoimmune neuropathy, for which diagnostic testing is widespread. In chronic peripheral neuropathy syndromes, antiganglioside antibodies are usually IgM, occurring either as paraproteins (often monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance) or as polyclonal antibodies. Antiganglioside autoantibodies are referred to by their specificity, either in terms of individual gangliosides (e.g., anti-GM1 IgG antibodies) or in terms of the reactive carbohydrate epitope (e.g., anti-Gal(β1-3)GalNAc IgM antibodies). When generalizing, it is often more appropriate to use the term antiglycolipid antibodies (as opposed to antiganglioside antibodies), since many neuropathy-associated autoantibodies react with glycolipids which are not strictly gangliosides, such as sulfated glucuronyl paragloboside (SGPG), sulfatide, asialo-GM1, and galactocerebroside, as these molecules do not contain sialic acid.

Citation: Willison H. 2006. Autoantibodies to Glycolipids in Peripheral Neuropathy, p 1078-1081. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch121

Key Concept Ranking

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Clinical syndromes associated with specific antiglycolipid autoantibodies

Citation: Willison H. 2006. Autoantibodies to Glycolipids in Peripheral Neuropathy, p 1078-1081. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch121
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TABLE 2

Examples of clinically relevant ganglioside structures

Citation: Willison H. 2006. Autoantibodies to Glycolipids in Peripheral Neuropathy, p 1078-1081. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch121

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