1887

Chapter 123 : Skin Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Skin Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap123-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap123-2.gif

Abstract:

The dermis and epidermis have a dense network of adhesion proteins and fibrous structural proteins that provide mechanical strength to the skin. A number of these adhesion molecules are known to become targets of autoantibodies, and antigen-antibody interactions in the skin lead to the clinical manifestations of autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Demonstration of the characteristic autoantibodies in the tissue and circulating in the blood is the critical diagnostic feature of numerous such diseases. In most of these diseases, the circulating autoantibodies have also been shown, by passive transfer in animal models, to directly cause the characteristic tissue injury. For each of these diseases, this chapter describes the expected findings in tissue and serum and outlines immunochemical tests that may be useful in diagnosis. There are four major forms of pemphigus: pemphigus vulgaris (PV), pemphigus foliaceus (PF), paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), and IgA pemphigus. All forms are characterized by a loss of normal epidermal cell-to-cell adhesion (acantholysis) and by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies reacting against desmosomal adhesion molecules. Pemphigus is a potentially lethal disease; to establish the diagnosis with certainty, the presence of both tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies must be demonstrated.

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123

Key Concept Ranking

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
0.46732005
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
0.46732005
0.46732005
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(Left) DIF of oral mucosa in PV showing linear IgG deposits on the epithelial cell surfaces; (right) DIF of oral mucosa in PNP showing linear IgG deposits on the epithelial cell surfaces as well as along the BMZ.

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(Left) IIF in PV showing the presence of circulating IgG autoantibodies binding the epithelial cell surfaces of monkey esophagus substrate with sparing of BMZ and the basal third of the epithelial stratum; (right) IIF in PNP showing the presence of circulating IgG autoantibodies binding the epithelial cell surfaces as well as the BMZ of monkey esophagus substrate.

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

IIF in PNP showing the presence of circulating IgG autoantibodies binding the epithelial cell surfaces as well as the BMZ of murine bladder, a plakin-rich substrate.

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

(Left) IIF in BP showing the presence of circulating IgG autoantibodies binding the epidermal side (roof) of human salt-split skin; (right) IIF in EBA showing the presence of circulating IgG autoantibodies binding the dermal side (floor) of human salt-split skin.

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

DIF of DH showing characteristic granular IgA deposits along the BMZ, with accentuation at the tip of the dermal papillae and microfibrils.

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

(Left) DIF of skin of IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schoenlein purpura) showing granular IgA deposits in and around superficial papillary dermal vessels; (right) DIF of skin in hypocomple-mentemic urticarial vasculitis showing granular IgG deposits in and around superficial papillary dermal vessels as well as along the BMZ (lupus band-like).

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

(Left) DIF of skin in discoid LE showing dense granular IgM deposits along the follic-ular (adnexal) BMZ; (right) DIF of skin in systemic LE showing granular IgG deposits along the epidermal BMZ.

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
1. Abell, E.,, D. G. Presbury,, R. Marks, and , D. Ramnarain. 1975. The diagnostic significance of immunoglobulin and fibrin deposition in lichen planus. Br. J. Dermatol. 93:1724.
2. Ablin, R. J.,, K. Milgrom,, K. Kano,, F. T. Rapaport, and , E. H. Beutner. 1969. Pemphigus-like antibodies in patients with skin burns. Vox Sang. 16:7375.
3. Acosta, E., and , L. Ivanyi. 1982. Comparison of the reactivity of various epithelial substrates for the titration of pemphigus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Br J. Dermatol. 107:537541.
4. Ahmed, A. R., and , T. T. Provost. 1979. Incidence of positive lupus band test using sun-exposed and unexposed skin. Arch. Dermatol. 115:228229.
5. Ahmed, A. R., and , S. Workman. 1983. Anti-intercellular substance antibodies: presence in serum samples of 14 patients without pemphigus. Arch. Dermatol. 119:1721.
6. Amagai, M.,, A. Komai,, T. Hashimoto,, K. Hashimoto,, T. Yamada,, Y. Kitajima,, K. Ohya,, H. Iwanami, and , T. Nishikawa. 1999. Usefulness of enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay using recombinant desmogleins 1 and 3 for serodiagnosis of pemphigus. Br. J. Dermatol. 140:351357.
7. Amagai, M.,, K. Tsunoda,, D. Zillikens,, T. Nagai, and , T. Nishikawa. 1999. The clinical phenotype of pemphigus is defined by the anti-desmoglein autoantibody profile. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40:167170.
8. Anderson, K. E. 1993. Pseudoporphyria versus porphyria cutanea tarda. J. Pediatr. 123:841842.
9. Anhalt, G. J. 1999. Making sense of antigens and antibodies in pemphigus. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40:763766.
10. Anhalt, G. J., and , L. A. Diaz. 1981. The dermal-epidermal junction in normal and disease states. Prog. Dis. Skin 1:161176.
11. Anhalt, G. J.,, C. H. Kim,, J. R. Stanley,, N. J. Korman,, D. A. Jabs,, M. Kory,, H. Izumi,, H. Ratrie III,, D. Mutasim,, L. Ariss-Abdo, and , R. S. Labib. 1990. Paraneoplastic pemphigus: an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease associated with neoplasia. N. Engl. J. Med. 323:17291735.
12. Anhalt, G. J., and , L. H. Morrison. 1991. Bullous and cicatricial pemphigoid. J. Autoimmun. 4:1735.
13. Baart de la Faille-Kuyper, E. M.,, L. Kater,, C. J. Kooiker, and , E. J. Dorhout Mees. 1973. IgA deposits in cutaneous blood vessel walls and mesangium in Henoch-Schoenlein syndrome. Lancet i:892893.
14. Bauer, E. A.,, Y. H. Kim,, D. T. Woodley,, J. Vitto,, P. Verrando, and , J. P. Ortonne. 1993. Epidermolysis bullosa, p. 257272. In T. T. Provost and , W. L. Weston (ed.), Bullous Diseases. Mosby, St. Louis, Mo.
15. Bekou, V.,, S. Thoma-Uszynski,, O. Wendler,, W. Uter,, S. Schwietzke,, T. Hunziker,, C. C. Zouboulis,, G. Schuler,, L. Sorokin, and , M. Hertl. 2005. Detection of laminin 5-specific auto-antibodies in mucous membrane and bullous pemphigoid sera by ELISA. J. Investig. Dermatol. 124:732740.
16. Beutner, E. H.,, V. Kumar,, S. A. Krasny, and , T. P. Chorzelski. 1987. Defined immunofluorescence in immunodermatology, p. 340. In E. H. Beutner,, T. P. Chorzelski, and , V. Kumar (ed.), Immunopathology of the Skin, 3rd ed. Wiley, New York, N.Y.
17. Bhol, K. C.,, J. E. Colon, and , A. R. Ahmed. 2003. Autoantibody in mucous membrane pemphigoid binds to an intracellular epitope on human beta4 integrin and causes basement membrane zone separation in oral mucosa in an organ culture model. J. Investig. Dermatol. 120:701702.
18. Bushkell, L. L.,, S. E. Mackel, and , R. E. Jordon. 1980. Erythema multiforme: direct immunofluorescence and detection of circulating immune-complexes. J. Investig. Dermatol. 74:372374.
19. Chan, L. S.,, J. D. Fine,, R. A. Briggaman,, D. T. Woodley,, C. Hammerberg,, R. J. Drugge, and , K. D. Cooper. 1993. Identification and partial characterization of a novel 105-Dalton lower lamina lucida autoantigen associated with a novel immune-mediated subepidermal blistering disease. J. Investig. Dermatol. 101:262267.
20. Chen, M.,, L. S. Chan,, X. Cai,, E. A. O’Toole,, J. C. Sample, and , D. T. Woodley. 1997. Development of an ELISA for rapid detection of anti-type VII collagen auto-antibodies in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. J. Investig. Dermatol. 108:6872.
21. Chorzelski, T. P.,, E. H. Beutner,, J. Sulej,, H. Tchorzewska,, S. Jablonska,, V. Kumar, and , A. Kapuscinska. 1984. IgA-endomysium antibody, a new immunological marker of dermatitis herpetiformis and coeliac disease. Br. J. Dermatol. 111:395402.
22. Cotell, S. L.,, J. C. Lapiere,, J. D. Chen,, T. Iwasaki,, P. A. Krusinski,, L. S. Chan, and , D. T. Woodley. 1994. A novel 105-KDa lamina lucida autoantigen: association with bullous pemphigoid. J. Investig. Dermatol. 103:7883.
23. Creswell, S. N.,, M. M. Black,, B. Bhogal, and , M. V. Skeete. 1981. Correlation of circulating intercellular antibody titers in pemphigus with disease activity. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 6:477483.
24. Dabski, C., and , E. H. Beutner. 1991. Studies of laminin and type IV collagen in blisters of porphyria cutanea tarda and drug-induced pseudoporphyria. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 25:2832.
25. Dahl, M. V. 1983. Usefulness of direct immunofluorescence in patients with lupus erythematosus. Arch. Dermatol. 119:10101017.
26. Dahl, M. V.,, J. H. McGowen,, S. I. Katz, and , W R. Vineyard. 1974. Pemphigus-like antibodies in sera of patients with thermal burns, gunshot wounds and skin grafts. Mil. Med. 139:196198.
27. Davis, M. D.,, M. S. Daoud,, B. Kirby,, L. E. Gibson, and , R. S. Rogers III. 1998. Clinicopathologic correlation of hypocomplementemic and normocomplementemic urticar-ial vasculitis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 38(Part 1):899905.
28. Delbaldo, C.,, M. Chen,, A. Friedli,, C. Prins,, J. Desmeules,, J. H. Saurat,, D. T. Woodley, and , L. Borradori. 2002. Drug-induced epidermolysis bullosa acquisita with antibodies to type VII collagen. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 46(Suppl.):S161S164.
29. Diaz, L. A.,, S. A. Sampaio,, E. A. Rivitti,, C. R. Martin,, P. R. Cunha,, C. Lombardi,, F. A. Almeida,, R. M. Castro,, M. L. Macca, and , C. Lavrado. 1989. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (fogo selvagem). I. Clinical features and immunopathology. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 20:657669.
30. Domloge-Hultsch, N.,, G. J. Anhalt,, W. R. Gammon,, Z. Lazarova,, R. Briggaman,, M. Welch,, D. A. Jabs,, C. Huff, and , K. B. Yancey. 1994. Antiepiligrin cicatricial pemphi-goid: a subepithelial bullous disorder. Arch. Dermatol. 130:15211529.
31. Feibelman, C.,, G. Stolzner, and , T. T. Provost. 1981. Pemphigus vulgaris. Superior sensitivity of monkey esophagus in the determination of pemphigus antibody. Arch. Dermatol. 117:561562.
32. Fellner, M. J.,, K. Fukujama,, A. Moshell, and , M. V. Klaus. 1973. Intercellular antibodies in blood and epidermis: a histochemical study of IgG immunoglobulins in patients with late reactions to penicillins and their comparison with similar antibodies in patients with pemphigus vulgaris. Br. J. Dermatol. 89:115126.
33. Fine, J. D.,, G. R. Neises, and , S. I. Katz. 1985. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic studies in cicatricial pemphigoid. J. Investig. Dermatol. 84:3943.
34. Fry, L.,, G. Haffeden,, F. Wojnarowska,, B. R. Thompson, and , P. P. Seah. 1978. IgA and C3 complement in the unin-volved skin in dermatitis herpetiformis after gluten withdrawal. Br. J. Dermatol. 99:3137.
35. Gammon, W. R., and , R. A. Briggaman. 1993. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and bullous systemic lupus erythematosus. Dermatol. Clin. 11:535547.
36. Gammon, W. R.,, C. Kowaleski, and , T. P. Chorzelski. 1990. Direct immunofluorescence studies of sodium chloride-separated skin in the differential diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 22:664670.
37. Gianetti, A. 1974. Immunofluorescence studies in the Senear-Usher syndrome. Arch. Dermatol. Forsch. 248:287.
38. Giudice, G. J.,, K. C. Wilske,, G. J. Anhalt,, J. A. Fairley,, A. F. Taylor,, D. J. Emery,, R. G. Hoffman, and , L. A. Diaz. 1994. Development of an ELISA to detect anti-BP180 autoantibodies in bullous pemphigoid and herpes gestatio-nis. J. Investig. Dermatol. 102:878881.
39. Gogate, P.,, R. Valenzuela,, S. Deodhar,, W. F. Bergfeld, and , M. Yeip. 1980. Globular deposition of immunoglobulins and complement in the papillary dermis: clinical significance. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 73:512517.
40. Goldstein, B. H., and , S. M. Katz. 1979. Immuno-fluorescent findings in oral bullous lichen planus. J. Oral Med. 34:812.
41. Gomes, M. A.,, C. Dambuyant,, J. Thivolet, and , R. Bussy. 1982. Bullous pemphigoid: a correlative study of autoantibodies, circulating immune complexes and dermo-epidermal deposits. Br. J. Dermatol. 107:4351.
42. Halberg, P.,, S. Ullman, and , F. Jorgensen. 1982. The lupus band test as a measure of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch. Dermatol. 118:572576.
43. Helm, T. N., and , R. Valenzuela. 1992. Continuous der-moepidermal junction IgM detected by direct immunofluorescence: a report of nine cases. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 26:203206.
44. Helou, J.,, J. Allbritton, and , G. Anhalt. 1995. Accuracy of indirect immunofluorescence testing in the diagnosis of paraneoplastic pemphigus. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32:441447.
45. Ishii, K.,, M. Amagai,, R. P. Hall,, T Hashimoto,, A. Takayanagi,, S. Gamou,, N. Shimizu, and , T Nishikawa. 1997. Characterization of autoantibodies in pemphigus using antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with baculovirus-expressed recombinant desmogleins. J. Immunol. 159:20102017.
46. Jablonska, S.,, T. P. Chorzelski,, E. H. Beutner,, B. Michel,, R. H. Cormane,, K. Holubar,, S. F. Bean,, K. M. Blaszczyk,, J. Ploem, and , N. K. Sackia. 1975. Cooperative study: uses for immunofluorescence tests of skin and sera. Arch. Dermatol. 11:371381.
47. Jiao, D., and , J. C. Bystryn. 1998. Antibodies to desmo-plakin in a patient with pemphigus foliaceus. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 11:169172.
48. Johnson, G. D.,, R. S. Davidson,, K. C. McNamee,, G. Russell,, D. Goodwin, and , E. J. Holborow. 1982. Fading of immunofluorescence during microscopy. A study of the phenomenon and its remedy. J. Immunol. Methods 55:231242.
49. Jordon, R. E.,, K. G. Heine,, G. Tappeiner,, L. L. Bushkell, and , T. T. Provost. 1976. The immunopathology of herpes gestationis. Immunofluorescence studies and characterization of “HG factor.” J. Clin. Investig. 57:14261433.
50. Kaplan, D. S., and , G. L. Picciolo. 1983. IF standardization by quantitative microfluorometry. II. Reduction in fading by reducing agents. Immunol. Commun. 12:107.
51. Katz, S. I.,, K. C. Hertz, and , H. Yaoita. 1976. Herpes gestationis. Immunopathology and characterization of the HG factor. J. Clin. Investig. 57:14341444.
52. Kelly, S. E.,, P. A. Frith,, P. R. Millard,, F. Wojnarowska, and , M. M. Black. 1988. A clinicopathological study of mucosal involvement in linear IgA disease. Br. J. Dermatol. 119:161170.
53. Kelly, S. E., and , F. Wojnarowska. 1988. The use of chemically split tissue in the detection of circulating anti-basement membrane zone antibodies in bullous pemphigoid and cicatricial pemphigoid. Br. J. Dermatol. 118:3140.
54. Landry, M., and , W. M. Sams, Jr. 1973. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Studies of the antibodies bound to skin. J. Investig. Dermatol. 52:18711880.
55. Laskaris, G., and , A. Angelopoulus. 1981. Cicatricial pemphigoid, direct and indirect immunofluorescent studies. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 51:4854.
56. Laskaris, G.,, A. Sklavounou, and , A. Angelopoulus. 1982. Direct immunofluorescence in oral lichen planus. Oral Surg. 53:483487.
57. Lazarova, Z.,, C. Sitaru,, D. Zillikens, and , K. B. Yancey. 2004. Comparative analysis of methods for detection of anti-laminin 5 autoantibodies in patients with anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51:886892.
58. Liu, Z.,, S. D. Shapiro,, S. S. Twining,, R. M. Senior,, G. J. Giudice,, J. A. Fairley, and , L. A. Diaz. 2000. A critical role for neutrophil elastase in experimental bullous pemphigoid. J. Clin. Investig. 105:113123.
59. Logan, R. A.,, B. Bhogal,, A. K. Das,, P. M. McKee, and , M. M. Black. 1987. Localization of bullous pemphigoid antibody—an indirect immunofluorescence study of 228 cases using a split-skin technique. Br. J. Dermatol. 117:471478.
60. Mascaro, J. M., Jr.,, G. Hausmann,, C. Herrero,, J. M. Grau,, M. C. Cid,, J. Palou, and , J. M. Mascaro. 1995. Membrane attack complex deposits in cutaneous lesions of dermatomyositis. Arch. Dermatol. 131:13861392.
61. Maynard, B., and , M. S. Peters. 1992. Histologic and immunofluorescence study of cutaneous porphyrias. J. Cutan. Pathol. 19:4047.
62. Michel, B.,, Y Milner, and , K. David. 1973. Preservation of tissue fixed immunoglobulins in skin biopsies of patients with lupus erythematosus and bullous diseases. Preliminary report. J. Investig. Dermatol. 59:449452.
63. Mimouni, D.,, D. Foedinger,, D. J. Kouba,, S. J. Orlow,, K. Rappersberger,, J. J. Sciubba,, O. V. Nikolskaia,, B. A. Cohen,, G. J. Anhalt, and , C. H. Nousari. 2004. Mucosal dominant pemphigus vulgaris with anti-desmoplakin autoantibodies. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51:6267.
64. Morrison, L. H., and , G. J. Anhalt. 1991. Herpes gestatio-nis. J. Autoimmun. 4:3745.
65. Mutasim, D. F.,, G. J. Anhalt,, L. A. Diaz, and , H. P. Patel. 1987. Linear immunofluorescence staining of the cutaneous basement membrane zone produced by pemphigoid antibodies: the result of hemidesmosome staining. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 16:7582.
66. Mutasim, D. F, and , L. A. Diaz. 1991. The use of immuno-histochemical techniques in the differentiation of subepi-dermal bullous diseases. Am. J. Dermatopathol. 13:7783.
67. Nisengard, R. J.,, M. Blaszczyk,, T. P. Chorzelski, and , E. Beutner. 1978. Immunofluorescence of biopsy specimens. Comparison of methods of transportation. Arch. Dermatol. 114:13291332.
68. Nousari, H. C.,, A. Kimyai-Asadi,, J. P. Caeiro, and , G. J. Anhalt. 1999. Clinical, demographic and immunohisto-logic features of vancomycin-induced linear IgA bullous disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 78:18.
69. Ojeda-Duran, S.,, R. Vargas-Rosendo, and , J. Fernandez-Diez. 1980. Skin immunofluorescence in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE: relationship between the immunohistochemical pattern and systemic activity. Arch. Investig. Med. 11:215226.
70. Okura, M.,, Y. Tatsuno,, M. Sato,, S. Hashizume,, Y. Kubota,, K. Matumura,, T. Hashimoto, and , M. Mizoguchi. 1997. Vesicular pemphigoid with antidesmo-plakin autoantibodies. Br. J. Dermatol. 136:794796.
71. Olsen, R. G.,, D. du Plessis,, C. Barron,, E. J. Schulz, and , W. Villet. 1983. Lichen planus dermopathy: demonstration of a lichen planus specific epidermal antigen in affected patients. J. Clin. Lab. Immunol. 10:103106.
72. Parfrey, P.,, M. Clement,, M. Vanderburg, and , P. Wright. 1980. Captopril-induced pemphigus. Br. Med. J. 281:194.
73. Peck, S. M.,, K. E. Osserman,, L. B. Weiner,, A. Lefkovits, and , R. S. Osserman. 1968. Studies in bullous diseases. Immunofluorescent serologic tests. N. Engl. J. Med. 279:951958.
74. Poh-Fitzpatrick, M. B. 1986. Porphyria, pseudoporphyria, pseudopseudoporphyria …? Arch. Dermatol. 122:403404.
75. Powell, A. M.,, Y. Sakuma-Oyama,, N. Oyama,, S. Albert,, B. Bhogal,, F. Kaneko,, T. Nishikawa, and , M. M. Black. 2005. Usefulness of BP180 NC16a enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serodiagnosis of pemphigoid gestationis and in differentiating between pemphigoid ges-tationis and pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy. Arch. Dermatol. 141:705710.
76. Provost, T. T.,, G. Andres,, P. J. Maddison, and , M. Reichlin. 1980. Lupus band test in untreated SLE patients: correlation of immunoglobulin deposition in the skin of the extensor forearm with clinical renal disease and serologic abnormalities. J. Investig. Dermatol. 74:407412.
77. Roh, J. Y.,, C. Yee,, Z. Lazarova,, R. P. Hall, and , K. B. Yancey. 2000. The 120-kDa soluble ectodomain of type XVII collagen is recognized by autoantibodies in patients with pemphigoid and linear IgA dermatosis. Br. J. Dermatol. 143:104111.
78. Rose, D. W.,, E. B. Brocker,, D. Schuppan, and , D. Zillikens. 1999. Circulating autoantibodies to tissue trans-glutaminase differentiate patients with dermatitis herpeti-formis from those with linear IgA disease. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 41:957961.
79. Sabolinski, M. L.,, E. H. Beutner,, S. Krasny,, V. Kumar,, J. Huang,, T. P. Chorzelski,, S. Sampaio. and , J. C. Bystryn. 1987. Substrate specificity of anti-epithelial antibodies of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus sera in immunofluorescence tests on monkey and guinea pig esophagus sections. J. Investig. Dermatol. 88:545549.
80. Sakuma-Oyama, Y.,, A. M. Powell,, N. Oyama,, S. Albert,, B. S. Bhogal, and , M. M. Black. 2004. Evaluation of a BP180-NC16a enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the initial diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. Br. J. Dermatol. 151:126131.
81. Santa-Cruz, D. J.,, P. G. Prioleau,, M. D. Marcus, and , J. Vitto. 1981. Pemphigus-like lesions induced by d-penicillamine. Analysis of clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescence features in 34 cases. Am. J. Dermatopathol. 3:8592.
82. Schroeter, A. L.,, P. W. M. Copeman,, R. E. Jordon,, W. M. Sams, and , R. K. Wilkelmann. 1971. Immunofluorescence of cutaneous vasculitis associated with systemic disease. Arch. Dermatol. 104:254259.
83. Senear, E., and , B. Usher. 1926. An unusual type of pemphigus combining features of lupus erythematosus. Arch. Dermatol. Syphil. 13:761.
84. Srivastava, M.,, A. Rencic,, G. Diglio,, H. Santana,, P. Bonitz,, R. Watson,, E. Ha,, G. J. Anhalt,, T. T. Provost, and , C. H. Nousari. 2003. Drug-induced, Ro/SSA-positive cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Arch. Dermatol. 139:4549.
85. Wojnarowska, F.,, R. A. Marsden,, B. Bhogal, and , M. M. Black. 1988. Chronic bullous disease of childhood, childhood cicatricial pemphigoid, and linear IgA disease of adults: a comparative study demonstrating clinical and immunopatho-logic overlap. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 19:792805.
86. Woodley, D. T. 1990. Immunofluorescence on salt-split skin for the diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Arch. Dermatol. 126:229.
87. Zillikens, D.,, K. Herzele,, M. Georgi,, E. Schmidt,, I. Chimanovitch,, H. Schumann,, J. M. Mascaro,, L. A. Diaz,, L. Bruckner-Tuderman,, E. B. Brocker, and , G. J. Giudice. 1999. Autoantibodies in a subgroup of patients with linear IgA disease react with the NC16A domain of BP 180. J. Investig. Dermatol. 113:947953.
88. Zillikens, D.,, Y. Kawahara,, A. Ishiko,, H. Shimizu,, J. Mayer,, C. V. Rank,, Z. Liu,, G. J. Giudice,, H. H. Tran,, M. P. Marinkovich,, E. B. Brocker, and , T. Hashimoto. 1996. A novel subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to a 200-kDa antigen of the basement membrane zone. J. Investig. Dermatol. 106:13331338.
89. Zillikens, D.,, J. M. Mascaro,, P. A. Rose,, Z. Liu,, S. M. Ewing,, F. Caux,, R. G. Hoffman,, L. A. Diaz, and , G. J. Giudice. 1997. A highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of circulating anti-BP180 autoantibodies in patients with bullous pemphigoid. J. Investig. Dermatol. 109:679683.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Antibody profiles in pemphigus variants

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Plakin proteins

Citation: Nousari C, Anhalt G. 2006. Skin Diseases, p 1091-1100. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch123

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error