1887

Chapter 129 : Monitoring Autoimmune Reactivity within the Retina

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Monitoring Autoimmune Reactivity within the Retina, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap129-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap129-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter deals with the identification of antiretinal immune reactivity in patients with retinal diseases. An extraordinary feature of the eye is its immune status. The immune response that occurs within the eye is different from the systemic immune response, and this unique characteristic has been referred to as immune privilege. Retinal autoimmunity exists as a naturally occurring disease in humans and as an experimentally designed animal model system. Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is an ocular inflammatory (autoimmune) disease that occurs after a perforating injury to one eye. Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) is most commonly associated with small-cell carcinoma of the lung, but it has also been reported for patients with breast, endometrial, and other cancers. Posterior ocular onchocerciasis is characterized by atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and as lesions advance, subretinal fibrosis occurs. Toxoplasmosis, which occurs in over 500 million humans worldwide, is caused by the obligate intracellular parasite . is also the most frequently identified infectious agent in posterior uveitis, and retinochoroiditis is an important cause of blindness in young adults. Measurement of antiretinal immune reactivity is difficult to perform in the clinical laboratory. Analysis of immunocytochemical or immunofluorescent staining of retina tissue sections requires special training for interpretation.

Citation: Hooks J, Chin M, Chan C, Detrick B. 2006. Monitoring Autoimmune Reactivity within the Retina, p 1136-1140. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch129

Key Concept Ranking

Transforming Growth Factor beta
0.46611705
0.46611705
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Immunohistochemical staining for antiretinal antibodies. Frozen sections of normal mouse retina were incubated with “normal” nonreactive human sera (A) or with sera from patients with retinal degenerative disease (B and C). Note reactivity with photoreceptor outer segments in panel B (arrowhead) or with ganglion cells (upper arrow), INL (middle arrow), and outer nuclear layer (lower arrow) in panel C.

Citation: Hooks J, Chin M, Chan C, Detrick B. 2006. Monitoring Autoimmune Reactivity within the Retina, p 1136-1140. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch129
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815905.ch129
1. Adamus, G.,, M. Machnicki,, H. Elerding,, B. Sugden,, Y. S. Blocker, and , D. A. Fox. 1998. Antibodies to recov-erin induce apoptosis of photoreceptor and bipolar cells in vivo. J. Autoimmun. 11:523533.
2. Braun, G.,, N. M. McKechnie, and , W. Gurr. 1995. Molecular and immunological characterization of hr44, a human ocular component immunologically crossreactive with antigen Ov39 of Onchocerca volvulus. J. Exp. Med. 182:11211131.
3. Cassoux, N.,, H. Merle-Beral,, P. Lehoang,, C. Herbort, and , C. C. Chan. 2001. Interleukin-10 and intraocular-central nervous system lymphoma. Ophthalmology 108:426427.
4. Chan, C. C., and , M. Mochizuki. 1999. Sympathetic ophthalmia: an autoimmune ocular inflammatory disease. Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 21:125134.
5. Chan, C. C.,, R. B. Nussenblatt,, L. S. Fujikawa,, A. G. Palestine,, G. Stevens, Jr.,, L. M. Parver,, M. W. Luckenbach, and , T. Kuwabara. 1986. Sympathetic ophthalmia. Immunopathological findings. Ophthalmology 93:690695.
6. Chan, C. C.,, R. B. Nussenblatt,, M. K. Kim,, A. G. Palestine,, K. Awadzi, and , E. A. Ottesen. 1987. Immuno-pathology of ocular onchocerciasis. 2. Anti-retinal autoantibodies in serum and ocular fluids. Ophthalmology 94:439443.
7. Chan, C. C., and , D. J. Wallace. 2004. Intraocular lymphoma: update on diagnosis and management. Cancer Control 11:285295.
8. Chan, C. C.,, S. M. Whitcup,, D. Solomon, and , R. B. Nussenblatt. 1995. Interleukin-10 in the vitreous of patients with primary intraocular lymphoma. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 120:671673.
9. Hooks, J. J.,, B. Detrick, and , R. Nussenblatt. 2004. Infections associated with retinal autoimmunity, p. 691700. In Y. Shoenfeld and , N. R. Rose (ed.), Infection and Autoimmunity. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
10. Hooks, J. J.,, M. O. Tso, and , B. Detrick. 2001. Retinopathies associated with antiretinal antibodies. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:853858.
11. Hormigo, A.,, L. Abrey,, M. H. Heinemann, and , L. M. DeAngelis. 2004. Ocular presentation of primary central nervous system lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment. Br. J. Haematol. 126:202208.
12. Lei, B.,, R. A. Bush,, A. H. Milam, and , P. A. Sieving. 2000. Human melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR) antibodies alter the retinal ON-response of the monkey ERG in vivo. Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41:262266.
13. McKechnie, N. M.,, W. Gurr, and , G. Braun. 1997. Immunization with the crossreactive antigens Ov39 from Onchocerca volvulus and hr44 from human retinal tissue induces ocular pathology and activates retinal microglia. J. Infect. Dis. 176:13341343.
14. Milam, A. H.,, J. C. Saari,, S. G. Jacobson,, W. P. Lubinski,, L. G. Feun, and , K. R. Alexander. 1993. Autoantibodies against retinal bipolar cells in cutaneous melanoma-associated retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34:91100.
15. Murphy, M. A.,, C. E. Thirkill, and , W. M. Hart, Jr. 1997. Paraneoplastic retinopathy: a novel autoantibody reaction associated with small-cell lung carcinoma. J. Neuroophthalmol. 17:7783.
16. Nussenblatt, R. B.,, I. Gery,, E. J. Ballintine, and , W. B. Wacker. 1980. Cellular immune responsiveness of uveitis patients to retinal S-antigen. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89:173179.
17. Nussenblatt, R. B., and , S. M. Whitcup. 2003. Uveitis: Fundamentals and Clinical Practice, 3rd ed. Mosby, Philadelphia, Pa.
18. Resnikoff, S.,, D. Pascolini,, D. Etya’ale,, I. Kocur,, R. Pararajasegaram,, G. P. Pokharel, and , S. P. Mariotti. 2004. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull. W. H. O. 82:844851.
19. Sawyer, R. A.,, J. B. Selhorst,, L. E. Zimmerman, and , W. E. Hoyt. 1976. Blindness caused by photoreceptor degeneration as a remote effect of cancer. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 81:606613.
20. Tan, E. M.,, T. E. Feltkamp,, J. S. Smolen,, B. Butcher,, R. Dawkins,, M. J. Fritzler,, T. Gordon,, J. A. Hardin,, J. R. Kalden,, R. G. Lahita,, R. N. Maini,, J. S. McDougal,, N. F. Rothfield,, R. J. Smeenk., Y. Takasaki,, A. Wiik,, M. R. Wilson, and , J. A. Koziol. 1997. Range of antinuclear antibodies in “healthy” individuals. Arthritis Rheum. 40:16011611.
21. Thirkill, C. E.,, P. FitzGerald,, R. C. Sergott,, A. M. Roth,, N. K. Tyler, and , J. L. Keltner. 1989. Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR syndrome) with antibodies reacting with retinal, optic-nerve, and cancer cells. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:15891594.
22. Whitcup, S. M.,, V. Stark-Vancs,, R. E. Wittes,, D. Solomon,, M. J. Podgor,, R. B. Nussenblatt, and , C. C. Chan. 1997. Association of interleukin 10 in the vitreous and cerebrospinal fluid and primary central nervous system lymphoma. Arch. Ophthalmol. 115:11571160.
23. Whittle, R. M.,, G. R. Wallace,, R. A. Whiston,, D. C. Dumonde, and , M. R. Stanford. 1998. Human anti-retinal antibodies in toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82:10171021.
24. Wolf, L. A.,, G. F. Reed,, R. R. Buggage,, R. B. Nussenblatt, and , C. C. Chan. 2003. Vitreous cytokine levels. Ophthalmology 110:16711672.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Antibody responses directed against retinal antigens in sera from patients with retinal diseases

Citation: Hooks J, Chin M, Chan C, Detrick B. 2006. Monitoring Autoimmune Reactivity within the Retina, p 1136-1140. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch129

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error