1887

Chapter 133 : Monitoring of Immunologic Therapies

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Monitoring of Immunologic Therapies, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap133-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap133-2.gif

Abstract:

Biologic therapies have gained considerable acceptance in recent years. A broad array of biologic agents have become available for the treatment of inheritable or acquired immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, cancer, or persistent infections. Biologic therapies can be categorized as follows: (i) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), (ii) cytokines, (iii) growth factors, (iv) activated cells, (v) cellular products, (vi) immunotoxins, and (vii) other immunomodulatory agents. Ex vivo preclinical studies of the new agent with human mononuclear cells (MNC) are often helpful in providing a rationale for targeting therapy to a particular subset of these cells or for focusing mechanistic studies on a particular cell population. The rationale for monitoring immunologic parameters in clinical trials with biologic agents is based on the premise that these agents achieve therapeutic effects as a result of their ability to modify one or more components of the patient’s immune system. In clinical trials with cytokines, it is important to measure the pharmacokinetics of the cytokine used for therapy as well as the levels of secondary cytokines in serum, which might be responsible for toxicity of the therapy. Monitoring of immune functions generally requires considerable cell numbers, fairly large volumes of blood or other body fluids, and facilities to process these samples for cell recovery. Cryopreservation may introduce artifacts, even when a rate-controlled drop in temperature is implemented. A vast array of labeled MAbs suitable for multicolor and multiparameter flow analyses are commercially available, allowing the measurement of the proportions of various immune cell subsets.

Citation: Whiteside T. 2006. Monitoring of Immunologic Therapies, p 1171-1182. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch133

Key Concept Ranking

Phase III Clinical Trial
0.54047084
Phase I Clinical Trial
0.52399975
Tumor Necrosis Factor
0.4903294
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
0.48150146
0.54047084
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815905.ch133
1. Aebersold, P. M.,, C. Hyatt,, S. Johnson,, K. Hines,, L. Korcak,, M. Sanders,, M. Lotze,, S. Topalian,, J. Yang, and , S. A. Rosenberg. 1991. Lysis of autologous melanoma cells by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes: association with clinical response. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 83:932937.
2. Allegretta, M.,, M. B. Atkins,, R. A. Dempsey,, E. C. Bradley,, M. W. Konrad,, A. Childs,, S. N. Wolfe, and , J. W. Mier. 1986. The development of anti-interleukin-2 antibodies in patients treated with recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2). J. Clin. Immunol. 6:481490.
3. Altman, J. D.,, P. A. H. Moss,, P. R. Goulder,, D. H. Barouch,, M. G. McHeyzer-Williams,, J. I. Bell,, A. J. McMichael, and , M. M. Davis. 1996. Phenotypic analysis of antigen-specific T lymphocytes. Science 274:9496.
4. Asai, T.,, W. J. Storkus, and , T. L. Whiteside. 2000. Evaluation of the modified ELISPOT assay for interferon-7 production in monitoring of cancer patients receiving antitumor vaccines. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 7:145154.
5. Caligiuri, M. A.,, C. Murray, and , M. J. Robertson. 1993. Selective modulation of human natural killer cells in vivo after prolonged infusion of low dose recombinant inter-leukin 2. J. Clin. Investig. 91:123132.
6. Elder, E. M., and , T. L. Whiteside. 1992. Processing of tumors for vaccine and/or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, p. 817819. In H. Friedman,, N. R. Rose,, E. C. deMacario,, J. L. Fahey, H. Friedman, and , G. M. Penn (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
7. Elder, M. B.,, D. Lin,, J. Clever,, A. C. Chan,, T. J. Hope,, A. Weiss, and , T. G. Parslow. 1994. Human severe combined immunodeficiency due to a defect in ZAP-70, a T cell tyrosine kinase. Science 264:15961599.
8. Foon, K. A.,, W. J. John,, M. Chakraborty,, R. Das,, A. Teitelbaum,, J. Garrison,, O. Kashala,, S. K. Chatterjee, and , M. Bhattacharya-Chatterjee. 1999. Clinical and immune responses in resected colon cancer patients treated with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody vaccine that mimics the carcinoembryonic antigen. J. Clin. Oncol. 17:28892895.
9. Friedman, H. 2004. Personal communication.
10. Gambacorti-Passerini, C.,, J. A. Hank,, M. R. Albertini,, A. A. Borchert,, K. H. Moore,, J. H. Schiller,, R. Bechhofer,, E. C. Borden,, B. Storer, and , P. M. Sondel. 1993. A pilot phase II trial of continuous-infusion interleukin-2 followed by lymphokine-activated killer cell therapy and bolus-infusion interleukin-2 in renal cancer. J. Immunother. 13:4348.
11. Givan, A. L.,, J. L. Fisher,, M. Waugh,, M. S. Ernstoff, and , P. K. Wallace. 1999. A flow cytometric method to estimate the precursor frequencies of cells proliferating in response to specific antigens. J. Immunol. Methods 230:99112.
12. Hank, J. A.,, P. C. Kohler,, G. Weil-Hillman,, N. Rosenthal,, K. H. Moore,, B. Storer,, D. Minkoff,, J. Bradshaw,, R. Bechhofer, and , R M. Sondel. 1988. In vivo induction of the lymphokine-activated killer phenomenon: interleukin 2-dependent human non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity generated in vivo during administration of human recombinant interleukin-2. Cancer Res. 48:19651971.
13. Hank, J. A.,, J. A. Sosman,, P. C. Kohler,, R. Bechhofer,, B. Storer, and , P. M. Sondel. 1990. Depressed in vitro T cell responses concomitant with augmented interleukin-2 responses by lymphocytes from cancer patients following in vivo treatment with interleukin-2. J. Biol. Response Mod. 9:519.
14. Herberman, R. B. 1985. Design of clinical trials with biological response modifiers. Cancer Treat. Rep. 69:11611164.
15. Ko, B. K.,, K. Kawano,, J. L. Murray,, M. L. Disis,, C. L. Efferson,, H. M. Kuerer,, G. E. Peoples, and , C. G. Ioannides. 2003. Clinical studies of vaccines targeting breast cancer. Clin. Cancer Res. 9:32223234.
16. Kuss, I.,, B. Hathaway,, R. L. Ferris,, W Gooding, and , T. L. Whiteside. 2004. Decreased absolute counts of T lymphocyte subsets and their relation to disease in squa-mous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Clin. Cancer Res. 10:37553762.
17. Reichert, T. E.,, C. Scheuer,, R. Day,, W Wagner, and , T. L. Whiteside. 2001. The number of intratumoral dendritic cells and ξ chain expression in T cells as prognostic and survival biomarkers in human oral carcinomas. Cancer 91:21362147.
18. Rosenberg, S. A.,, M. T. Lotze,, J. C. Yang,, P. M. Aebersold,, W. M. Linehan,, C. A. Seipp, and , D. E. White. 1989. Experience with the use of high-dose interleukin-2 in the treatment of 652 cancer patients. Ann. Surg. 210:474485.
19. Shevach, E. M. 2004. Fatal attraction: tumors beckon regulatory T cells. Nat. Med. 9:900901.
20. Sondel, P. M.,, P. C. Kohler,, J. A. Hank,, K. H. Moore,, N. S. Rosenthal,, J. A. Sosman,, R. Bechhofer, and , B. Storer. 1988. Clinical and immunological effects of recombinant interleukin 2 given by repetitive weekly cycles to patients with cancer. Cancer Res. 48:25612567.
21. Van Parijs, L., and , A. K. Abbas. 1998. Homeostasis and self-tolerance in the immune system: turning lymphocytes off. Science 280:243248.
22. Whiteside, T. L. 2000. Monitoring of antigen-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 7:327332.
23. Whiteside, T. L. 2002. Apoptosis of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and peripheral circulation of patients with cancer: implications for immunotherapy. Vaccine 20:A46A51.
24. Whiteside, T. L. 2002. Cytokine assays. Biotechniques 33:415.
25. Whiteside, T. L. 2004. Down-regulation of ζ chain expression in T cells: a biomarker of prognosis of cancer? Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 53:865876.
26. Whiteside, T. L.,, J. Stanson,, M. R. Shurin, and , S. Ferrone. 2004. Antigen processing machinery (APM) in human dendritic cells: up-regulation by maturation and down-regulation by tumor cells. J. Immunol. 173:15261534.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Immunologic assays currently available for monitoring of phase I clinical trails with biologic agents

Citation: Whiteside T. 2006. Monitoring of Immunologic Therapies, p 1171-1182. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch133

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error