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Chapter 20 : Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry

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Abstract:

The medical indications for the use of flow cytometric leukemia and lymphoma immunophenotyping in a clinical setting continue to be defined, but three general areas have been identified. The general principles and procedures for instrument setup and specimen handling are similar to those used for lymphocyte immunophenotyping; however, in this chapter, emphasis is laid on areas of particular importance to leukemia and lymphoma immunophenotyping. Optimization and standardization of instrument performance on a daily basis are very important in the immunophenotypic analysis of leukemia and lymphoma. Immunophenotyping of leukemia and lymphoma may be performed on any specimen from which a single cell suspension can be generated, including peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph node, body fluids, and tissue. Peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens must be anticoagulated; EDTA, heparin, and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) are the anticoagulants most frequently used. The detection of hematopoietic malignancies by flow cytometry relies on the principle that neoplastic cells express antigens in patterns recognizably different from those of normal hematopoietic cells. In B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), the abnormal B cells express the T-cell-lineage-associated antigen CD5 in combination with dim CD20, dim CD22, dim surface light chain, and moderate to bright CD23, with little to no expression of FMC7. The determination of clonality by flow cytometry has recently been described for T-cell or NK-cell neoplasms, utilizing T-cell receptor Vβ subset or killer inhibition receptor subset antibodies, respectively.

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Precursor B-cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia
0.48012337
B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
0.4738472
Immune Systems
0.46845755
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
0.44605124
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
0.4439669
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
0.4439669
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
0.4439669
White Blood Cells
0.43374687
0.48012337
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Normal B-cell maturation (upper row) versus precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (lower row). The dot plots display white blood cells (left), lymphocytes (center), or B cells (right). Note the small number of B-cell precursors in normal bone marrow relative to the large abnormal B-cell population lacking CD45 expression (bottom left) in the patient with leukemia. The abnormal B cells also show decreased expression of CD19 (bottom center) and increased CD10 without normal maturational acquisition of CD20 (bottom right). FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Normal myeloid maturation (upper row) versus MDS (lower row). The dot plots display white blood cells (left), blasts (center), or maturing myeloid cells (right). Note the decrease in side scatter on the maturing myeloid population in myelodysplasia, as indicated by the shift of the maturing myeloid cells to the left so that they overlap the monocytes. The blasts (center) show an increase in HLA-DR expression, and the maturing myeloid cells (right) show an aberrant expression pattern of CD13 and CD16 in myelodysplasia. Note the small number of myeloid cells having normal maturation in the background. SS, side scatter; PB, Pacific Blue.

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Forward-scatter (FS) versus side-scatter (SS) display of normal bone marrow using either logarithmic (left) or linear (right) SS as commonly displayed. The axes may be reversed depending upon the operator’s preference. The dark line encloses the viable white blood cells. Note the difficulty in resolving the low FS and SS populations, i.e., lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and myeloblasts, relative to CD45 versus SS gating of the same sample in Fig. 2 . The very low scatter events lying outside the dark lines represent unlysed erythrocytes and degenerating cells.

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

CD45 versus side-scatter (SS) gating of normal bone marrow using either logarithmic (left) or linear (right) SS as commonly displayed. Note that the use of logarithmic SS results in tighter clustering of the populations having higher SS, in particular the myeloid cells. The ungated cells with low to negative CD45 represent unlysed erythrocytes.

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Lineage-specific gating of peripheral blood using CD19 to identify the B-cell population (left). The additional presence of both kappa and lambda light chains in the tube allows the ability to specifically analyze the B-cell population and demonstrate a sizeable clonal B-cell population having lambda light-chain restriction (right). Note the presence of a very small subset of polyclonal B cells having brighter light-chain expression. SS, side scatter; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

WHO classification of AML

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

WHO classification of B-cell neoplasms

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

WHO classification of T-cell and NK-cell neoplasms

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Antibodies commonly used in the diagnosis of acute leukemia

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Antibodies commonly used in the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Citation: Wood B. 2006. Immunophenotyping of Leukemia and Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry, p 171-186. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch20

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