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Chapter 47 : Immunohistochemistry: Diagnostic and Prognostic Applications

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Abstract:

This chapter highlights the basic principles of immunostaining for light microscopy in brief and discusses the diagnostic and prognostic applications of immunostaining. Improved standardization of fixation methods, automated immunostaining, and image analysis are likely to improve the global interpretation of tissue subjected to immunohistochemistry. The areas in which immunostaining might be used for such applications may be categorized as follows: differential diagnosis, evaluation using therapeutic predictive markers, evaluation using prognostic markers, evaluation for dysplasia and malignancy, and intraoperative evaluation. Her-2/neu protein is expressed in the cell membrane and can be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry as a marker with a membranous immunostaining pattern. In cases with equivocal immunohistochemistry results, gene amplification can be demonstrated by the use of labeled nuclear probes with in situ hybridization, either fluorescent in situ hybridization or chromogenic in situ hybridization.

Citation: Shidham V, Kajdacsy-Balla A. 2006. Immunohistochemistry: Diagnostic and Prognostic Applications, p 408-413. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch47

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Algorithm for immuohistochemical evalution of tumors—to be interpreted with reference to morphology and clinical details ( ). §, For covering a wider spectrum of cytokeratins (CyK), cytokeratin-Lu-5 or a cocktail of cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and CAM5.2 is preferred. ¶, The list of hematopoietic lesions is partial and abbreviated (for details, see reference and other specific literature). †, For details, see specific references including references and .

Citation: Shidham V, Kajdacsy-Balla A. 2006. Immunohistochemistry: Diagnostic and Prognostic Applications, p 408-413. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch47
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Typical immunoreactivity (antigen expression) patterns of a few types of tumors

Citation: Shidham V, Kajdacsy-Balla A. 2006. Immunohistochemistry: Diagnostic and Prognostic Applications, p 408-413. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch47

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