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Chapter 51 : Immune Responses to Polysaccharide and Conjugate Vaccines

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Abstract:

Estimation of antibody concentrations and measurements of functional antibody are critical to one's understanding of polysaccharide (PS)-induced immunity. Information on quantitative immunoassays for anti-PS antibodies is presented in this chapter. In an assessment of naturally occurring levels of antibody to encapsulated bacteria and evaluation of the immune response to PS or conjugate vaccines, one should consider both antibody quantitation and measures of biological (functional) activity. Quantitation of anti-PS antibody is important, because as the type-specific antibody concentration increases, the risk of invasive disease on a population basis due to that bacterial strain decreases. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is now the most commonly used method for quantitation of antibody concentration. The presence or induction of bactericidal antibody is predictive of protection against meningococcal disease. The major problem that presents is its ability to cause outbreaks and epidemics. The pneumococcal PSs are poorly immunogenic and fail to induce protective antibody levels in children <2 years of age. For this reason conjugate vaccines were developed against the 7 to 11 most common pediatric pneumococcal types. In Nepal, where the attack rate in individuals 5 to 44 years of age was 16.2/1,000, the Vi PS vaccine given as a single 25-μg dose had an efficacy of 75% measured 17 months after vaccination. This study clearly showed that serum antibodies to the Vi PS were sufficient to protect against typhoid fever.

Citation: Frasch C. 2006. Immune Responses to Polysaccharide and Conjugate Vaccines, p 434-443. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch51

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Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
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Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
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FIGURE 1

Age-related maturation in antibody response to PSs. Antibody response to four serotypes upon immunization with the pneumococcal PS vaccine in children from 1 to 15 years of age was measured.

Citation: Frasch C. 2006. Immune Responses to Polysaccharide and Conjugate Vaccines, p 434-443. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch51
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Bacterial PS vaccines licensed in the United States

Citation: Frasch C. 2006. Immune Responses to Polysaccharide and Conjugate Vaccines, p 434-443. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Bacterial PS-protein conjugate vaccines licensed in the United States

Citation: Frasch C. 2006. Immune Responses to Polysaccharide and Conjugate Vaccines, p 434-443. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Human reference sera for ELISA

Citation: Frasch C. 2006. Immune Responses to Polysaccharide and Conjugate Vaccines, p 434-443. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch51

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