Chapter 52 : and Immune Response and Diagnostic Methods

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

and Immune Response and Diagnostic Methods, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap52-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap52-2.gif


and are responsible for important diseases. Tetanus is caused by introduction of from soil through contaminated wounds, while diphtheria results from airborne infection from infected cases. In both instances it is a potent exotoxin that is responsible for clinical disease. The toxin of is so potent that the lethal dose may not be of sufficient strength to stimulate antibody production. In both instances formalin-inactivated toxins have been used for universal immunization. For children they are combined with pertussis vaccine, and adults are given both together at a reduced dose of diphtheria toxoid. The exotoxin produced by is the most important pathogenic factor. Although reliable methods of measuring antitoxic neutralizing antibodies have existed for many years for tetanus antitoxin, regular clinical laboratories rarely maintain the capability of determining tetanus antitoxin levels because they are of no use in diagnosis or treatment of the acute disease. The mouse neutralization assay is the most widely used, and this method is described in this chapter in detail. Injection of tetanus toxoid, which is one of the most effective immunizing agents in use today, regularly evokes antitoxic antibodies. There are few indications for the determination of tetanus antitoxin levels. The procedure for titration of tetanus antitoxin is based on the capacity of tetanus antitoxin to protect mice from death after subcutaneous injection of tetanus toxin.

Citation: Lepow M, Hughes P. 2006. and Immune Response and Diagnostic Methods, p 444-447. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch52

Key Concept Ranking

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Hepatitis B Vaccine
Toxin Neutralization Assay
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2003. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, p. 614616. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove, Ill.
2. Barile, M. F.,, M. C. Hardegree, and , M. Pittman. 1970. Immunization against neonatal tetanus in New Guinea. 3. The toxin neutralization test as used in the immunization schedules in New Guinea. Bull. W. H. O. 43:453459.
3. Bonin, E.,, M. Tiru,, H. Hallander, and , U. Bredberg-Raden. 1999. Evaluation of single and dual antigen delayed fluorescence immunoassay in comparison to an ELISA and the in vivo toxin neutralization test for detection of diphtheria toxin antibodies. J. Immunol. Methods 230:131140.
4. Cha, J.,, J. S. Brooke,, M. Y. Chang, and , L. Eidels. 2002. Receptor based antidote for diphtheria. Infect. Immun. 70:23442350.
5. Dow, B. C.,, A. Barr,, R. J. Crawford, and , R. Mitchell. 1983. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of tetanus antibody. Med. Lab. Sci. 40:7374.
6. Edwards, K. M., and , M. D. Decker. 1997. Combination vaccines consisting of acellular pertussis vaccines. Pediatr. Infect. Dis.J. 16(Suppl.):S97S102.
7. Efstratiou, A., and , P. A. Maple. 1994. WHO Manual for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Diphtheria. Publication ICP-EPI 038. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
8. Gupta, R. A.,, S. C. Maheshwari, and , H. Sing. 1984. The titration of tetanus antitoxin. III. A comparative evaluation of indirect hemagglutination and toxin neutralization titers of human sera. J. Biol. Stand. 12:145149.
9. Hardy, I. R. B.,, S. Dittman, and , R. W. Sutter. 1996. Current situation and control strategies for resurgence of diphtheria in newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. Lancet 347:17391744.
10. Melville-Smith, M. E.,, V. A. Seagroatt, and , J. T. Watkins. 1983. A comparison of enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) with the toxin neutralization test in mice as a method for the estimation of tetanus antitoxin in human sera. J. Biol. Stand. 11:137144.
11. Wassilak, G. F.,, W. A. Orenstein, and , R. W. Sutter. 1999. Tetanus toxoid, p. 441473. In S. A. Plotkin and , E. A. Mortimer, Jr. (ed.), Vaccines, 3rd ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
12. Wharton, M., and , C. Vitek. 2004. Diphtheria toxoid, p. 211228. In S. A. Plotkin and , W. A. Orenstein (ed.), Vaccines, 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
13. Winsnes, R., and , G. Christiansen. 1979. Quantification of tetanus antitoxin in human sera. II. Comparison of counterimmunoelectrophoresis and passive hemagglutination with toxin neutralization in mice. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 87:197200.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error