Chapter 60 : Chlamydial Infections

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Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria, which cause many diseases in animals and humans. This chapter focuses on the diagnosis of human infections. genital infections are associated with many syndromes, including cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in females, and urethritis, proctitis, and epididymitis in males. Serovars can be distinguished by serology or by genetic typing of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene. Antigen detection using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used before the advent of molecular tests and is still the most common nonculture detection test for . Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) can be used to define the infected patient gold standard to evaluate chlamydia diagnostic tests. Symptomatic patients should receive a pelvic examination, with a sample taken for a NAAT, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the test of choice. The species was established in 1989 based on antibody reactivity, EB ultrastructure, and DNA homology. causes 10% of pneumonia and 5% of bronchitis and sinusitis cases in adults. Avian strains () are virulent to humans and cause severe pneumonia accompanied by systemic symptoms known as psittacosis. Transmission occurs by the airborne route, either by direct contact with birds or by the inhalation of dust contaminated with excreta of infected birds.

Citation: Campbell L, Kuo C, Gaydos C. 2006. Chlamydial Infections, p 518-525. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch60
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31. Weisenfeld, H. C.,, D. L. B. Lowry,, R. P. Heine,, M. A. Krohn,, H. Bittner,, K. Kellinger,, M. Schultz, and , R. L. Sweet. 2001. Self-collection of vaginal swabs for the detection of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis: opportunity to encourage sexually transmitted disease testing among adolescents. Sex. Transm. Dis. 28:321325.


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Sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for the detection of

Citation: Campbell L, Kuo C, Gaydos C. 2006. Chlamydial Infections, p 518-525. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch60
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Storage media for

Citation: Campbell L, Kuo C, Gaydos C. 2006. Chlamydial Infections, p 518-525. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch60

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