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Chapter 63 : Detection and Anthrax Diagnosis

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on methods that are currently in use within Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratories and on commercially available tests that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and thus are widely available. The chapter includes four sections, covering culture, molecular, antigen, and antibody detection methods for the diagnosis of anthrax. Supportive laboratory tests including the LRN PCR assay, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tissues, and anti-protective antigen (anti-PA) immunoglobulin G (IgG) detection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are discussed in this chapter. LRN real-time PCR assay was also used during the 2001 bioterrorism-associated anthrax outbreak to detect in environmental samples and clinical specimens to confirm anthrax diagnosis when the isolation of failed due to the initiation of antimicrobial drug treatment. Antibodies have been used successfully to detect the vegetative and spore forms of . A section covers the following four methods: a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA), time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) assays, an immunochromatographic assay, and IHC assays. In addition, quantitative ELISAs and the toxin neutralization assay (TNA) have also been used in vaccine-animal challenge studies to show that levels of anti-PA antibodies are a significant predictor of survival. Recently, a commercially available test was FDA approved to qualitatively measure anti-PA antibodies in human serum (QuickELISA Anthrax-PA kit). Current research interests and funding will continue to yield novel technologies and new methods for the detection of and the diagnosis of anthrax in the future.

Citation: Hoffmaster A, Popovic T. 2006. Detection and Anthrax Diagnosis, p 547-552. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch63

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Anthrax Lethal Toxin
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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Diagnostic tests for detection of

Citation: Hoffmaster A, Popovic T. 2006. Detection and Anthrax Diagnosis, p 547-552. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch63

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