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Chapter 65 : Molecular and Immunological Approaches to the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections

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Abstract:

The diagnosis of parasitic infections is definitively made by the identification of parasites in host tissue or excreta. The detection of antibodies can be very useful as an indicator that an individual has been infected with a specific parasite. A positive result for a person with no exposure to the parasite prior to recent travel in an area where disease is endemic may be interpreted as indicating recent infection. In general, the detection of antibodies to parasitic diseases indicates only infection at some indeterminate time and not necessarily an acute or current infection. The detection of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA antibodies may be of value in determining the approximate time of initial infection with , but it is not recommended for any other parasitic disease. The diagnosis of human intestinal protozoa depends on microscopic detection of the various parasite stages in feces, duodenal fluid, or small intestine biopsy specimens. Antibody and antigen detection tests for parasitic diseases are discussed. For all antibody detection tests for parasitic diseases, sera or plasmas are acceptable specimens. Fresh or preserved stool samples are acceptable for antigen detection testing with most kits. Antibody detection kits that are available commercially in the United States for parasitic diseases other than toxoplasmosis are tabulated and discussed in this chapter.

Citation: Wilson M, Schantz P, Nutman T. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Approaches to the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections, p 557-568. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch65

Key Concept Ranking

Parasitic Diseases
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Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay
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Complement Fixation Test
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FIGURE 1

Algorithm for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in people older than 1 year of age.

Citation: Wilson M, Schantz P, Nutman T. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Approaches to the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections, p 557-568. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch65
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Antibody and antigen detection tests for parasitic diseases

Citation: Wilson M, Schantz P, Nutman T. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Approaches to the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections, p 557-568. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch65
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Antibody detection kits available commercially in the United States for parasitic diseases other than toxoplasmosis

Citation: Wilson M, Schantz P, Nutman T. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Approaches to the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections, p 557-568. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch65
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Commercially available kits for immunodetection of parasitic organisms or antigens

Citation: Wilson M, Schantz P, Nutman T. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Approaches to the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections, p 557-568. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch65
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Toxoplasma kits available commercially in the United States

Citation: Wilson M, Schantz P, Nutman T. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Approaches to the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections, p 557-568. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch65

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