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Chapter 77 : Parvovirus B19

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Parvovirus B19, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Parvovirus B19 is the smallest (18 to 26 nm in diameter) DNA virus known to infect humans. The clinical spectrum of parvovirus B19 infection may be classified by common and uncommon manifestations. The majority of the children have the hallmark rash characterized by bright red ‘’slapped cheeks’’. The rash may also appear on the torso and extremities. Parvovirus B19 has also been associated with acute fulminant liver failure, myocarditis, mononucleosis-like syndrome, Koplik’s spots, and pneumonia. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was successfully applied to the cellular localization of B19 antigen in tissue and cell culture samples but has not found wide clinical application. The first system developed consisted of tests using native virus from viremic patients as an antigen source. Several groups have synthesized peptides based on published B19 DNA sequences for use as antigen in immunoassays. PCR-based technologies offer exquisite sensitivity and the ability to detect B19 DNA in different types of clinical specimens. Many investigators have now reported the use of PCR to detect B19 in fetal and adult tissues, body fluids, blood products, and cell cultures. Parvovirus B19 infection is widespread in the community. Immunocompromised patients who lack neutralizing anti-B19 antibodies and who present with manifestations of persistent B19 infection benefit from commercial intravenous immunoglobulin. Specific antiviral chemotherapy for parvovirus B19 has not been demonstrated.

Citation: Naides S. 2006. Parvovirus B19, p 684-690. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch77

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Electron micrograph of serum from a patient with sickle cell disease and aplastic crisis, showing full (white arrow) and empty (black arrow) nonenveloped, icosahedral viral particles measuring ˜23 nm in diameter, visualized by negative staining with uranyl acetate. Bar, 100 nm (original magnification, × 196,000). Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Naides S. 2006. Parvovirus B19, p 684-690. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch77
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

ELISA-based tests showing antibody capture ELISA for anti-B19 IgM antibody (A), antibody capture ELISA for anti-B19 IgG antibody (B), antigen capture ELISA for B19 virus (C), and recombinant or synthetic B19 antigen-based ELISA for detection of B19 antibody (D).

Citation: Naides S. 2006. Parvovirus B19, p 684-690. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch77
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Common clinical manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection

Citation: Naides S. 2006. Parvovirus B19, p 684-690. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch77
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Less common clinical manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection

Citation: Naides S. 2006. Parvovirus B19, p 684-690. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch77

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