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Chapter 82 : Enteroviruses
The enteroviruses are extremely stable in the environment. They retain viability indefinitely at 70№C and for years at 20№C and are not inactivated by ether or chloroform. Infectivity is lost when they are heated at 50№C for 2 min or more. Virions are protected from heat inactivation by addition of divalent cations. UV light, formaldehyde treatment, or sodium hypochlorite (0.3 to 0.5 ppm of chlorine) treatment inactivates infectivity. Heating or UV light converts the infectious N particle to the noninfectious H form. A more frequent but less severe disease is aseptic meningitis, for which enteroviruses are the major cause. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which react with most or all enteroviruses (group-reactive MAbs) may be used in indirect immunofluorescence assays for confirmation. Due to a variety of factors associated with serotyping, including antigenic variation and drift, viral aggregation, expense, and the time required to complete the characterization, there is a great interest and need for development and application of molecular methods for typing enteroviruses. On the basis of molecular and biologic data, these untypeable enteroviruses are now proposed as new enterovirus serotypes. Nucleic acid amplification by PCR is sensitive and specific and is the method of choice for direct detection of enteroviruses. The use of molecular methods, particularly PCR, is an important advance that will contribute greatly to more rapid and sensitive diagnostics for enteroviruses.
Key Concept Ranking
- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism