1887

Chapter 84 : Rotaviruses and Noroviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Rotaviruses and Noroviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap84-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap84-2.gif

Abstract:

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA), in particular, has been used extensively to establish the incidence and prevalence of rotavirus infection and to define antigenic characteristics of the virus. Antiserum prepared against virus of one serotype tends to neutralize homotypic rotaviruses more efficiently than it neutralizes heterotypic viruses. P1A and P1B are associated with the most virulent human rotaviruses that cause diarrhea. The protocol for the EIA to determine the VP4 serotype is similar to that for the VP7 serotyping EIA described, except that VP4 serotyping antibodies are used. Human infections are most commonly caused by GI and GII noroviruses, representing 15 or more genotypes. By nature of the infection, detection of norovirus nucleic acid is performed with stool samples which may contain inhibitors to RT-PCR. Significant sequence diversity among the multitude of norovirus strains has made it difficult to design primers that detect all strains of norovirus. The RT-PCR methods used most extensively to date are neither the simplest nor the fastest. In addition, verifying the specificity of the amplicon necessitates additional analysis, including probe hybridization and variations of this technique, as well as sequencing the product. Two fluorescence techniques, in single-tube formats, are increasingly studied to detect noroviruses in clinical samples, water, and shellfish: SYBR green dye incorporation into amplicons and the TaqMan fluorogenic detection system. Developing the optimal molecular detection assay for the highly diverse noroviruses continues to be a challenge that is being pursued by scientists throughout the world.

Citation: Feng N, Matsui S. 2006. Rotaviruses and Noroviruses, p 746-756. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch84

Key Concept Ranking

Latex Agglutination Test
0.4277819
Norwalk virus
0.4079931
0.4277819
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Direct EIA for antigen measurement. Reproduced from reference with permission.

Citation: Feng N, Matsui S. 2006. Rotaviruses and Noroviruses, p 746-756. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch84
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Indirect EIA for rotavirus antigen measurement. Reproduced from reference with permission.

Citation: Feng N, Matsui S. 2006. Rotaviruses and Noroviruses, p 746-756. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch84
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Cross-reactivity due to anti-immunoglobulin.

Citation: Feng N, Matsui S. 2006. Rotaviruses and Noroviruses, p 746-756. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch84
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815905.ch84
1. Beuret, C. 2004. Simultaneous detection of enteric viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 115:18.
2. Bishop, R. F.,, G. P. Davidson,, I. H. Holmes, and , B. J. Ruck. 1973. Virus particles in epithelial cells of duodenal mucosa from children with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Lancet i:12811283.
3. Bresee, J. S.,, M.-A. Widdowson,, S. S. Monroe, and , R. I. Glass. 2002. Foodborne viral gastroenteritis: challenges and opportunities. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:748753.
4. Buesa, J.,, J. Colomina,, J. Raga,, A. Villanueva, and , J. Prat. 1996. Evaluation of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) for the detection of rotaviruses: applications of the assay. Res. Virol. 147:353361.
5. Burton-MacLeod, J. A.,, E. M. Kane,, R. S. Beard,, L. A. Hadley,, R. I. Glass, and , T. Ando. 2004. Evaluation and comparison of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay kits for detection of antigenically diverse human noroviruses in stool samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:25872595.
6. Dennehy, R. H.,, M. Hartin,, S. M. Nelson, and , S. F. Reising. 1999. Evaluation of the ImmunoCardSTAT! Rotavirus assay for detection of group A rotavirus in fecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:19771979.
7. Duizer, E.,, K. J. Schwab,, E. H. Neill,, R. L. Atmar,, M. P. G. Koopmans, and , M. K. Estes. 2004. Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 85:7987.
8. Estes, M. K. 2001. Rotaviruses and their replication, p. 17471785. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. F. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and , S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
9. Fischer, T. K., and , J. R. Gentsch. 2004. Rotavirus typing methods and algorithms. Rev. Med. Virol. 14:7182.
10. Gentsch, J. R.,, R. I. Glass,, P. Woods,, V. Gouvea,, M. Gorziglia,, J. Flores,, B. K. Das, and , M. K. Bhan. 1992. Identification of group A rotavirus gene 4 types by polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:13651373.
11. Glass, R. I.,, J. S. Bresee,, U. D. Parashar,, B. Jiang, and , J. Gentsch. 2004. The future of rotavirus vaccines: a major setback leads to new opportunities. Lancet 363:15471550.
12. Gorziglia, M.,, G. Larralde,, A. Z. Kapikian, and , R. M. Chanock. 1990. Antigenic relationships among human rotaviruses as determined by outer capsid protein VP4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:71557159.
13. Green, K. Y.,, R. M. Chanock, and , A. Z. Kapikian. 2001. Human caliciviruses, p. 841874. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. F. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and , S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
14. Hohne, M., and , F. Schreier. 2004. Detection and characterization of norovirus outbreaks in Germany: application of a one-tube RT-PCR using a fluorogenic real-time detection system. J. Med. Virol. 72:312319.
15. Hoshino, Y., and , A. Z. Kapikian. 1994. Rotavirus antigens. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 185:179227.
16. Hoshino, Y., and , A. Z. Kapikian. 2000. Rotavirus serotypes: classification and importance in epidemiology, immunity, and vaccine development. J. Health Popul. Nutr. 18:514.
17. Jiang, X.,, D. Y. Graham,, K. Wang. and , M. K. Estes. 1990. Norwalk virus genome: cloning and characterization. Science 250:15801583.
18. Jiang, X.,, M. Wang,, K. Wang, and , M. K. Estes. 1993. Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. Virology 195:5161.
19. Jiang, X.,, M. Wang,, D. Y. Graham, and , M. K. Estes. 1992. Expression, self-assembly, and antigenicity of the Norwalk virus capsid protein. J. Virol. 66:65276532.
20. Jiang, X.,, N. Wilton,, W. M. Zhong,, T. Farkas,, T. W. Huang,, F. Barrett,, M. Guerrero,, G. Ruiz-Palacios,, K. Y. Green,, J. Green,, A. D. Hale,, M. K. Estes,, L. K. Pickering, and , D. O. Matson. 2000. Diagnosis of human caliciviruses by use of enzyme immunoassays. J. Infect. Dis. 181(Suppl. 2):S349S359.
21. Kageyama, T.,, S. Kojima,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, S. Fukushi,, E. B. Hoshino,, N. Takeda,, K. Katayama. 2003. Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:15481557.
22. Kapikian, A. Z.,, Y. Hoshino, and , R. M. Chanock. 2001. Rotaviruses, p. 17871833. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. F. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and , S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
23. Kapikian, A. Z.,, R. G. Wyatt,, R. Dolin,, T. S. Thornhill,, A. R. Kalica, and , R. M. Chanock. 1972. Visualization by immune electron microscopy of a 27 nm particle associated with acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. J. Vrol. 10:10751081.
24. Kapikian, A. Z.,, R. H. Yolken,, H. B. Greenberg,, R. G. Wyatt,, A. R. Kalica,, R. M. Chanock, and , H. W. Kim. 1979. Gastroenteritis viruses, p. 927995. In E. H. Lennette and , N. Schmidt (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections, 5th ed. American Public Health Association, New York, N.Y.
25. Larralde, G., and , J. Flores. 1990. Identification of gene 4 alleles among human rotaviruses by polymerase chain reaction-derived probes. Virology 179:469473.
26. Linhares, A. C.,, Y. B. Gabbay,, J. Mascarenhas,, R. B. Freitas,, T. H. Flewett, and , G. M. Beards. 1988. Epidemiology of rotavirus subgroups and serotypes in Belem Brazil: a three year study. Ann. Inst. Pasteur Paris 139:8899.
27. Loisy, F.,, R. L. Atmar,, P. Guillon,, P. Le Cann,, M. Pommepuy, and , E. S. Le Guyader. 2005. Real-time RT-PCR for norovirus screening in shellfish. J. Virol. Methods 123:17.
28. Martins, T. B.,, T. D. Jaskowski,, C. L. Mouritsen, and , H. R. Hill. 1995. An evaluation of the effectiveness of three immunoglobulin G (IgG) removal procedures for routine IgM serological testing. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 2:98103.
29. Matsui, S. M.,, J. P. Kim,, H. B. Greemberg,, W. Su,, Q. Sun,, P. C. Johnson,, H. L. DuPont,, L. S. Oshiro, and , G. R. Reyes. 1991. The isolation and characterization of a Norwalk virus-specific cDNA. J. Clin. Investig. 87:14561461.
30. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin, and , R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
31. Moe, C. L.,, A. Sair,, L. Lindesmith,, M. K. Estes, and , L.-A. Jaykus. 2004. Diagnosis of Norwalk virus infection by indirect enzyme immunoassay detection of salivary antibodies to recombinant Norwalk virus antigen. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:10281034.
32. Nakagomi, O.,, H. Oyamada, and , T. Nakagomi. 1989. Use of alkaline Northern blot hybridization for the identification of genetic relatedness of the fourth gene of rotaviruses. Mol. Cell. Probes 3:263271.
33. Parashar, U. D.,, R. C. Holman,, M. J. Clarke,, J. S. Bresee, and , R. I. Glass. 1998. Hospitalization associated with rotavirus diarrhea in the United States, 1993 through 1995: surveillance based on the new ICD-9-CM rotavirus specific diagnostic code. J. Infect. Dis. 177:713.
34. Parashar, U. D.,, E. G. Hummelman,, J. S. Bresee,, M. A. Miller, and , R. I. Glass. 2003. Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:565572.
35. Peterman, J. H., and , J. F. Butler. 1989. Computer analysis for enzyme immunoassays. BioTechniques 7:601605.
36. Richards, A. F.,, B. Lopman,, A. Gunn,, A. Curry,, D. Ellis,, H. Cotterill,, S. Ratcliffe,, M. Jenkins,, H. Appleton,, C. I. Gallimore,, J. J. Gray, and , D. W. Brown. 2003. Evaluation of a commercial ELISA for detecting Norwalk-like virus antigen in feces. J. Clin. Virol. 26:109115.
37. Richards, G. P.,, M. A. Watson,, R. L. Fankhauser, and , S. S. Monroe. 2004. Genogroup I and II noroviruses detected in stool samples by real-time reverse transcription-PCR using highly degenerate universal primers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:71797184.
38. Richards, G. P.,, M. A. Watson, and , D. H. Kingsley. 2004. A SYBR green, real-time RT-PCR method to detect and quantitate Norwalk virus in stools. J. Vrol. Methods 116:6370.
39. Tucker, A. W.,, A. C. Haddix,, J. S. Bresee,, R. C. Holman,, U. D. Parashar, and , R. I. Glass. 1998. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a rotavirus immunization program for the United States. JAMA 279:13711376.
40. Vinjé, J.,, H. Vennema,, L. Maunula,, C.-H. von Bonsdorff,, M. Hoehne,, F. Schreier,, A. Richards,, J. Green,, D. Brown,, S. S. Beard,, S. S. Monroe,, F. de Bruin,, L. Svensson, and , M. P. G. Koopmans. 2003. International collaborative study to compare reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detection and genotyping of noroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:14231433.
41. Wilde, J.,, J. Eiden, and , R. Yolken. 1990. Removal of inhibitory substances from human fecal specimens for detection of group A rotaviruses by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:13001307.
42. Wilde, J.,, R. Van,, L. Pickering,, J. Eiden, and , R. Yolken. 1992. Detection of rotaviruses in the day care environment by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J. Infect. Dis. 166:507511.
43. Wilde, J.,, R. Yolken,, R. Willoughby, and , J. Eiden. 1991. Improved detection of rotavirus shedding by polymerase chain reaction. Lancet 337:323326.
44. Wilhelmi, I.,, J. Colomina,, D. Martin-Rodrigo,, F. Roman, and , A. Sanchez-Fauquier. 2001. New immunochromato-graphic method for rapid detection of rotaviruses in stool samples compared with standard enzyme immunoassay and latex agglutination techniques. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20:741743.
45. Wobus, C. E.,, S. M. Karst,, L. B. Thackray,, K.-O. Chang,, S. V. Sosnovtsev,, G. Belliot,, A. Krug,, J. M. Mackenzie,, K. Y. Green, and , H. W. Virgin IV. 2004. Replication of Norovirus in cell culture reveals a tropism for dendritic cells and macrophages. PLoS Biol. 2:e432.
46. Yolken, R. H. 1990. Immunoassays for diagnosis of infectious diseases. Methods Enzymol. 184:529537.
47. Yolken, R. H. 1990. Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections, p. 141181. In G. J. Galasso,, R. J. Whitley, and , T. C. Merigan (ed.), Antiviral Agents and Viral Diseases of Man, 3rd ed. Raven Press, New York, N.Y.
48. Yolken, R. H. 1997. Enzyme immunoassays for detection of rotavirus antigen and antibody, p. 719728. In N. R. Rose,, F. Conway de Macario,, J. D. Folds,, H. C. Lane, and , R. M. Nakamura (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
49. Yolken, R. H.,, R. G. Wyatt,, L. Mata,, J. J. Urrutia,, B. Garcia,, R. M. Chanock, and , A. Z. Kapikian. 1978. Secretory antibody directed against rotavirus in human milk—measurement by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Pediatr. 93:916921.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Reference viruses and a partial list of VP7 monoclonal antibodies for G serotyping

Citation: Feng N, Matsui S. 2006. Rotaviruses and Noroviruses, p 746-756. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch84
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Reference viruses and a partial list of VP4 monoclonal antibodies for P serotyping

Citation: Feng N, Matsui S. 2006. Rotaviruses and Noroviruses, p 746-756. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch84

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error