1887

Chapter 88 : Rabies Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Rabies Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap88-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap88-2.gif

Abstract:

Rabies virus, the type species of the genus of the family , order , is the causative agent of rabies, an invariably lethal neurological disease of a wide variety of animals and humans. The existence of cryptic rabies and proof that transmission of the disease between humans can occur by organ transplantation indicate that screening of potential donors with encephalitis of unknown origin for rabies is prudent. This can be accomplished by the analysis of tissue biopsies for either rabies virus antigens or nucleic acids and serology, as many victims of clinical rabies exhibit high serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers of rabies virus-specific antibodies prior to their death. The dependence of the direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test on fluorescence microscopy has led to the development of several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods for the detection and quantification of rabies virus antigens that may be more suited for use in the field. The assessment of rabies virus-specific neutralizing antibody titers by fluorescent focus inhibition tests like the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) requires technical expertise. Immunization is recommended for individuals whose occupations or other activities may predispose them to exposure to rabies virus. It is noteworthy in this regard that antigenic cross-reactivity between rabies virus G and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 has been described, and sera from rabies-immune individuals have occasionally cross-reacted against HIV-1 gp120 in ELISA.

Citation: Hooper D. 2006. Rabies Virus, p 791-797. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch88

Key Concept Ranking

Human immunodeficiency virus 1
0.7139384
Rabies virus
0.46297342
0.7139384
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815905.ch88
1. Arai, Y. T.,, K. Yamada,, Y. Kameoka,, T. Horimoto,, K. Yamamoto,, S. Yabe,, M. Nakayama, and , M. Tashiro. 1997. Nucleoprotein gene analysis of fixed and street rabies virus variants using RT-PCR. Arch. Virol. 142:17871796.
2. Bracci, L.,, S. K. Ballas,, A. Spreafico, and , P. Neri. 1997. Molecular mimicry between the rabies virus glycoprotein and human immunodeficiency virus-1 GP120: cross-reacting antibodies induced by rabies vaccination. Blood 90:36233628.
3. Briggs, D. J.,, J. S. Smith,, F. L. Mueller,, J. Schwenke,, R. D. Davis,, C. R. Gordon,, K. Schweitzer,, L. A. Orciari,, P. A. Yager, and , C. E. Rupprecht. 1998. A comparison of two serological methods for detecting the immune response after rabies vaccination in dogs and cats being exported to rabies-free areas. Biologicals 26:347355.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients—Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53:586589.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Update: investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients—Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53:615616.
6. Cliquet, F.,, M. Aubert, and , L. Sagné. 1998. Development of a fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation test (FAVN test) for the quantitation of rabies-neutralising antibody. J. Immunol. Methods 212:7987.
7. Dean, D. J., and , M. K. Abelseth. 1973. The fluorescent antibody test. WHO Monogr. Ser. 23:7384.
8. Hamir, A. N.,, G. Moser,, T. Wampler,, A. Hattel,, B. Dietzschold, and , C. F. Rupprecht. 1996. Use of a single anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody to detect rabies antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Vet. Rec. 138:114115.
9. Heaton, P. R.,, L. M. McElhinney, and , J. P. Lowings. 1999. Detection and identification of rabies and rabies-related viruses using rapid-cycle PCR. J. Virol. Methods 81:6369.
10. Jayakumar, R.,, G. Thirumurugan,, K. Nachimuthu, and , V. D. Padmanaban. 1995. Detection of rabies virus antigen in animals by avidin-biotin dot ELISA. Zentbl. Bakteriol. 285:8285.
11. Katayama, S.,, M. Yamanaka,, S. Ota, and , Y. Shimizu. 1999. A new quantitative method for rabies virus by detection of nucleoprotein in virion using ELISA. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 61:411416.
12. Kulonen, K.,, M. Fekadu,, S. Whitfield, and , C. K. Warner. 1999. An evaluation of immunofluorescence and PCR methods for detection of rabies in archival carnoy-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue. J. Vet. Med. 46:151155.
13. Nadin-Davis, S.,, W. Huang, and , A. I. Wandeler. 1996. The design of strain-specific polymerase chain reactions for discrimination of the raccoon rabies virus strain from indigenous rabies viruses of Ontario. J. Virol. Methods 57:114.
14. Péharpré, D.,, F. Cliquet,, E. Sagné,, C. Renders,, F. Costy, and , M. Aubert. 1999. Comparison of visual microscopic and computer-automated fluorescence detection of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 11:330333.
15. Perrin, P.,, C. Gontier,, E. Lecocq, and , H. Bourhy. 1992. A modified rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses: RREID-lyssa. Biologicals 20:5158.
16. Rupprecht, C. E.,, B. Dietzschold,, W. H. Wunner, and , H. Koprowski. 1991. Antigenic relationships of Lyssaviruses, p. 69100. In G. M. Baer (ed.), The Natural History of Rabies, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
17. Sabouraud, A.,, J. S. Smith,, L. A. Orciari,, C. de Mattos,, C. de Mattos, and , R. Rohde. 1999. Typing of rabies virus isolates by DNA enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Virol. 12:919.
18. Sacramento, D.,, H. Bourhy, and , N. Tordo. 1991. PCR technique as an alternative method for diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of rabies virus. Mol. Cell. Probes 6:229240.
19. Smith, J. 1999. Rabies virus, p. 10991106. In P. R. Murray (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
20. Smith, J.,, L. M. McElhinney,, P. R. Heaton,, E. M. Black, and , J. P. Lowings. 2000. Assessment of template quality by the incorporation of an internal control into a RT-PCR for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses. J. Virol. Methods 84:107115.
21. Sokol, F 1973. Purification of rabies virus and isolation of its components. WHO Monogr. Ser. 23:165178.
22. Warner, C.,, M. Fekadu,, S. Whitfield, and , J. Shaddock. 1999. Use of anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies to characterize rabies virus in formalin-fixed tissues. J. Virol. Methods 77:6974.
23. Warner, C. K.,, S. G. Whitfield,, M. Fekadu, and , H. Ho. 1997. Procedures for reproducible detection of rabies virus antigen mRNA and genome in situ in formalin-fixed tissues. J. Virol. Methods 67:512.
24. WHO Expert Committee on Rabies. 1992. WHO Expert Committee on Rabies, 8th report. WHO Technical Report Series no. 824. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
25. Wiktor, T. J.,, R. I. Macfarlan,, C. M. Foggin, and , H. Koprowski. 1984. Antigenic analysis of rabies and Mokola virus from Zimbabwe using monoclonal antibodies. Dev. Biol. Stand. 57:199211.
26. Wunner, W. H. 1991. The chemical composition and molecular structure of rabies viruses, p. 3167. In G. M. Baer (ed.), The Natural History of Rabies, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Selected laboratory (fixed) strains of rabies virus

Citation: Hooper D. 2006. Rabies Virus, p 791-797. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch88
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Antigenic variation among diverse North American rabies virus isolates

Citation: Hooper D. 2006. Rabies Virus, p 791-797. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch88
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Primer and probe sets for quantitative PCR of rabies N-protein mRNA

Citation: Hooper D. 2006. Rabies Virus, p 791-797. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch88

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error