Chapter 90 : Coronavirus Including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

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, (CoV) a genus within the family , contains a number of enveloped viruses that infect both animals and humans. CoVs have been identified in mice, rats, chickens, turkeys, swine, dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, cattle, and humans and cause a variety of severe diseases, including gastroenteritis and respiratory tract diseases. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) first appeared as a potentially fatal cause of pneumonia in Guangdong Province of China in November 2002. The first human case was identified on 16 November, and within 6 months SARS spread to 29 countries, infecting 8,098 people and killing 774 individuals. The major route of transmission in humans is droplet infection, aerosolization, and fomites. Deposition of droplets onto the respiratory epithelium probably initiates infection. Whether infection can occur through the oral or conjunctival epithelium remains unknown, but SARS-CoV has been detected in tears. Virus can also be detected in serum, plasma, and peripheral blood leukocytes by RT-PCR; however, the viremia may be short-lived. Isolation of SARS-CoV in cell culture followed by determination of its partial genome sequence led to the first generation of RT-PCR assays for diagnosing SARS. Real-time PCR assays that provide viral loads may also be useful for identifying patients at increased risk for worse outcomes in terms of survival and requirement for intensive care and assisted ventilation.

Citation: Mahony J, Zhang C. 2006. Coronavirus Including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), p 803-809. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch90

Key Concept Ranking

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Respiratory syncytial virus
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RT-PCR assays for detection of HCoV

Citation: Mahony J, Zhang C. 2006. Coronavirus Including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), p 803-809. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch90

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