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Chapter 92 : Prion Diagnostics

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Abstract:

The natural forms of prion disease are shown in this chapter. Diagnostics for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have become important following the realization that several of them may infect humans (or should be assumed to do so) and that, because of modern agricultural and medicinal techniques, large numbers of people may be put at risk. Also, prophylactic agents and progress in potential methods of treatment for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients suggest that diagnostics may be necessary to permit the therapeutics to be used early in a symptomatic phase. Several methods are claimed to show tubulofilamentous particles present in brain that are specific to TSEs and start to appear in the tissues at around half the incubation period of the disease. Standard staining methods can be used for the demonstration of specific histopathological changes in the brain, e.g., hematoxylin and eosin stains. The growth of academic groups in the field of prion research has led to a tendency for each of them to be large enough to declare that their own methods are adequate. The development of many diagnostic systems and methods has meant that many groups have difficulty knowing which would be of most value for individual patients despite the appearance of national and international guidelines. Currently over 20 million cattle are being tested annually for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Europe, and blood transfusion risks may demand that a similar number of blood donations also be tested for the foreseeable future.

Citation: Dealler S. 2006. Prion Diagnostics, p 822-830. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch92

Key Concept Ranking

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
0.49209446
Incubation Period
0.4910923
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
0.48980427
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
0.46571553
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
0.4496564
Chronic Wasting Disease
0.4496564
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
0.4496564
0.49209446
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815905.ch92
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Natural forms of prion disease

Citation: Dealler S. 2006. Prion Diagnostics, p 822-830. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch92
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TABLE 2

Dose of infection required to transmit the disease when inoculated into various sites

Citation: Dealler S. 2006. Prion Diagnostics, p 822-830. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch92
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Comparison of licensed rapid brain tissue tests for PrPd that are used commercially for the testing of asymptomatic cattle for BSE

Citation: Dealler S. 2006. Prion Diagnostics, p 822-830. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch92
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Nonspecific tests for TSE also used to follow disease progression

Citation: Dealler S. 2006. Prion Diagnostics, p 822-830. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch92
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Precautions for working with high- and low-infectivity tissues from patients with known or suspected TSEs

Citation: Dealler S. 2006. Prion Diagnostics, p 822-830. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch92
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Value of specific tests in the diagnosis of TSEs

Citation: Dealler S. 2006. Prion Diagnostics, p 822-830. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch92

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