1887

Chapter 96 : Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap96-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815905/9781555813642_Chap96-2.gif

Abstract:

In the current environment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatments under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), not only an increase in the number of CD4 T lymphocytes but also a decrease in the level of plasma viremia is expected; thus, it is essential to be able to quickly and accurately assess viral load. Continuous low-level viral replication, noncompliance issues, and gradual deterioration of the immune system have all contributed to the emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1. HIV drug resistance presents another challenge for clinicians. Until recently, the accepted approach to treating infected individuals with drug-resistant HIV-1 was thorough treatment history and viral load data. RNA is extracted by using guanidium thiocyanate and isopropanol. The use of an internal quantitation standard (IQS) monitors the efficiency of extraction and amplification and eliminates the need for a standard curve. The internal standard and the target sequence compete equally for primer binding and amplification in the PCR. Variables such as the efficiency of amplification and the number of cycles will have the same effect on both templates. The genotypic assays provide sequencing information that can be used to identify known resistance codons. Virus is concentrated from patient plasma by high-speed centrifugation, the virus pellet is lysed and viral RNA is purified using standard procedures.

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96

Key Concept Ranking

Human immunodeficiency virus 1
0.49988952
Reverse Transcriptase PCR
0.44337764
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
0.41447967
0.49988952
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Principle of the bDNA assay.

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

ICVPCR for the estimation of HIV-1 RNA in patient plasma. (A, B, and C) Different dilutions of mutant virus (VX-46) containing 0 pg (lane 1), 30 pg (lane 2), 3 pg (lane 3), 0.3 pg (lane 4), and 0.03 pg (lane 5) of p24 antigen were added to 100 μl aliquots of patients’ plasma. RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, and PCR were carried out as described in the text. The sizes of DNA products from the mutant (148) and wild type (123) are shown on the right. Each panel is for plasma from one of three different patients. (D) Estimation of HIV-1 RNA in patients’ plasma. Patient 1 (triangles) had 10,000 copies, patient 2 (squares) had 7,600 copies, and patient 3 (circles) had 16,000 copies of RNA in 100 μl of plasma.

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Structure of chimeric HIV. The PCR-amplified products are digested with restriction enzymes depending on the drug to be tested. To investigate drug resistance to protease inhibitor, RT inhibitor, or a combination of protease inhibitor and RT inhibitor, the products are digested with plus plus IM1, or plus M1. The digested products are ligated into pNLPFB backbone. LTR, long terminal repeat; aa, amino acid; PR, protease.

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
1. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. 2004. Virology Manual for HIV Laboratories. [Online.] Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Md. http://www.niaid.nih.gov./daids/vir_manual.
2. Beddows, S.,, S. Galpin,, S. H. Kazmi,, A. Ashraf,, A. Johargy,, A. J. Frater,, N. White,, R. Braganza,, J. Clarke,, M. McClure, and , J. N. Weber. 2003. Performance of two commercially available sequence-based HIV-1 genotyping systems for the detection of drug resistance against HIV type 1 group M subtypes. J. Med. Virol. 70:337342.
3. Beutler, E.,, T. Gelbart, and , W. Kuhl. 1990. Interferences of heparin with the polymerase chain reaction. BioTechniques 9:166.
4. Buckheit, R. W., Jr. 2004. Understanding HIV resistance, fitness, replication capacity and compensation: targeting viral fitness as a therapeutic strategy. Exp. Opin. Investig. Drugs 13:933958.
5. Carpenter, C. C. J.,, D. A. Cooper,, M. A. Fischl,, J. M. Gatell,, B. G. Gazzard,, S. M. Hammer,, M. S. Hirsch,, D. M. Jacobsen,, D. A. Katzenstein,, J. S. Montner,, D. D. Richman,, M. S. Saag,, M. Schechter,, R. T. Schooley,, M. A. Thompson,, S. Vella,, P. G. Yeni, and , P. A. Volberding. 2000. Antiretroviral therapy in adults: updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society— USA panel. JAMA 283:381390.
6. Chew, C. B.,, B. L. Herring,, F. Zheng,, C. Browne,, N. K. Saksena,, A. L. Cunningham, and , D. E. Dwyer. 1999. Comparison of three commercial assays for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma from individuals infected with different HIV-1 subtypes. J. Clin. Virol. 14:8794.
7. Chun, T. W.,, D. Engel,, S. B. Mizell,, L. A. Ehler, and , A. S. Fauci. 1998. Induction of HIV-1 replication in latently infected CD4+ T cells using a combination of cytokines. J. Exp. Med. 188:8391.
8. Chun, T. W,, L. Stuyver,, S. B. Mizell,, L. A. Ehler,, J. A. M. Mican,, M. Baseler,, A. L. Lloyd,, M. A. Nowak, and , A. S. Fauci. 1997. Presence of an inducible HIV-1 latent reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:1319313197.
9. Clementi, M.,, S. Menzo,, P. Bagnarelli,, A. Manzin,, A. Valenza, and , P. E. Varaldo. 1993. Quantitative PCR and RT-PCR in virology. PCR Methods Applic. 2:191196.
10. Coutlee, F.,, P. Saint-Antoine,, C. Olivier,, A. Kessous-Elbaz,, H. Voyer,, E. Berrada,, P. Begin,, L. Giroux, and , R. Viscidi. 1991. Discordance between primer pairs in the polymerase chain reaction for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: a role for Taq polymerase inhibitors. J. Infect. Dis. 164:817818.
11. Cunningham, S.,, B. Ank,, D. Lewis,, W Lu,, M. Wantman,, J. A. Dileanis,, J. B. Jackson,, P. Palumbo,, P. Krogstad, and , S. H. Eshleman. 2001. Performance of the Applied Biosystems ViroSeq human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotyping system for sequence-based analysis of HIV-1 in pediatric plasma samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:12541257.
12. d’Arminio Monforte, A.,, L. Testa,, F. Adorni,, E. Chiesa,, T. Bini,, G. C. Moscatelli,, C. Abeli,, S. Rusconi,, S. Sollima,, C. Balotta,, M. Musicco,, M. Galli, and , M. Moroni. 1998. Clinical outcome and predictive factors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy in antiretroviral-experienced patients in advanced stages of HIV-1 infection. AIDS 12:16311637.
13. Dauber, D. S.,, R. Ziermann,, N. Parkin,, D. J. Maly,, S. Mahrus,, J. L. Harris,, J. A. Ellman,, C. Petropoulos, and , C. S. Craik. 2002. Altered substrate specificity of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. J. Virol. 76:13591368.
14. Dewar, R. L.,, H. C. Highbarger,, M. D. Sarmiento,, E. S. Lawton,, M. B. Vasudevachari,, J. A. Kovacs,, R. T. Davey,, R. E. Walker,, H. C. Lane, and , N. P. Salzman. 1992. Isolation of HIV-1 from plasma of infected individuals; an analysis of experimental conditions affecting successful virus propagation. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5:822828.
15. Dickover, R. E.,, S. A. Herman,, K. Saddiq,, D. Wafer,, M. Dillon, and , Y. J. Bryson. 1998. Optimization of specimen-handling procedures for accurate quantitation of levels of human immunodeficiency virus RNA in plasma by reverse transcriptase PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:10701073.
16. Dornadula, G.,, H. Zhang,, B. VanUitert,, J. Stern,, L. Livornese, Jr.,, M. J. Ingerman,, J. Witek,, R. J. Kedanis,, J. Natkin,, J. DeSimone, and , R. J. Pomerantz. 1999. Residual HIV-1 RNA in blood plasma of patients taking suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. JAMA 282:16271632.
17. Elbeik, T.,, T. W. Chun,, H. Imamichi., T. Imamichi,, V. Natarajan,, D. Waters,, R. L. Dewar, and , H. Highbarger. 2002. Quantitation of viremia and determination of drug resistance in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, p. 772789. In N. R. Rose,, R. G. Hamilton, and , B. Detrick (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 6th ed., ASM Press, Washington, DC.
18. Elbeik, T,, R. L. Dewar, and , V. Natarajan. 1997. Isolation and detection of human immunodeficiency virus, p. 781787. In N. R. Rose,, E. Conway de Macario,, J. D. Folds,, H. C. Lane, and , R. M. Nakamura (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
19. Eshleman, S. H.,, J. Hackett, Jr.,, P. Swanson,, S. P. Cunningham,, B. Drews,, C. Brennan,, S. G. Devare,, L. Zekeng,, L. Kaptue, and , N. Marlowe. 2004. Performance of the Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System for sequence-based analysis of diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:27112717.
20. Feher, A.,, I. T. Weber,, P. Bagossi,, P. Boross,, B. Mahalingam,, J. M. Louis,, T. D. Copeland,, I. Y. Torshin,, R. W. Harrison, and , J. Tozser. 2002. Effect of sequence polymorphism and drug resistance on two HIV-1 Gag processing sites. Eur. J. Biochem. 269:41144120.
21. Ferrando, S.,, W. van Gorp,, M. McElhiney,, K. Goggin,, M. Sewell, and , J. Rabkin. 1998. Highly active antiretro-viral treatment in HIV infection: benefits for neuropsychological function. AIDS 12:F65F70.
22. Finzi, D.,, M. Hermankova,, T. Pierson,, L. M. Carruth,, C. Buck,, R. E. Chaisson,, T. C. Quinn,, K. Chadwick,, J. Margolick,, R. Brookmeyer,, J. Gallant,, M. Markowitz,, D. D. Ho,, D. D. Richman, and , R. F. Siliciano. 1997. Identification of a reservoir for HIV-1 in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Science 278:12951300.
23. Fontaine, E.,, C. Riva,, M. Peeters,, J. C. Schmit,, E. Delaporte,, K. Van Laethem,, K. Van Vaerenbergh,, J. Snoeck,, E. Van Wijngaerden,, E. De Clercq,, M. Van Ranst, and , A. M. Vandamme. 2001. Evaluation of two commercial kits for the detection of genotypic drug resistance on a panel of HIV type 1 subtypes A through J. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 28:254258.
24. Furtado, M. R.,, D. S. Callaway,, J. P. Phair,, K. J. Kunstman,, J. L. Stanton,, C. A. Macken,, A. S. Perelson, and , S. M. Wolinsky. 1999. Persistence of HIV-1 transcription in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:16141622.
25. Gatanaga, H.,, Y. Suzuki,, H. Tsang,, K. Yoshimura,, M. F. Kavlick,, K. Nagashima,, R. J. Gorelick,, S. Mardy,, C. Tang,, M. F. Summers, and , H. Mitsuya. 2002. Amino acid substitutions in Gag protein at non-cleavage sites are indispensable for the development of a high multitude of HIV-1 resistance against protease inhibitors. J. Biol. Chem. 277:59525961.
26. Gilliland, G.,, S. Perrin,, K. Blanchard, and , H. F. Bunn. 1990. Analysis of cytokine mRNA and DNA: detection and quantitation of competitive polymerase chain reaction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:27252729.
27. Gonzales, M. J.,, E. Johnson,, K. M. Dupnik,, T. Imamichi, and , R. W. Shafer. 2003. Colinearity of reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations detected by population-based sequencing. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 34:398402.
28. Gulick, R. M.,, J. W. Mellors,, D. Havlir,, J. J. Eron,, C. Gonzalez,, D. McMahon,, D. D. Richman,, F. T. Valentine,, L. Jonas,, A. Meibohm,, E. A. Emini, and , J. A. Chodakewitz. 1997. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 337:734739.
29. Gunthard, H. F.,, S. W. Frost,, A. J. Leigh-Brown,, C. C. Ignacio,, K. Kee,, A. S. Perelson,, C. A. Spina,, D. V. Halvir,, M. Hezareh,, D. J. Looney,, D. D. Richman, and , J. K. Wong. 1999. Evolution of envelope sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cellular reservoirs in the setting of potent antiviral therapy. J. Virol. 73:94049412.
30. Hammer, S. M.,, K. E. Squires,, M. D. Hughes,, J. M. Grimes,, L. M. Demeter,, J. S. Currier,, J. J. Eron, Jr.,, J. E. Feinberg,, H. H. Balfour, Jr.,, L. R. Deyton,, J. A. Chodakewitz, and M. A. Fischl For the AIDS Clinical Trial Group 320 Study Team. 1997. A controlled trial of two nucleotide analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. N. Engl. J. Med. 337:725733.
31. Hertogs, K.,, M.-P. De Bethune,, V Miller,, T. Ivenes,, P. Schel,, A. Van Cauwenberge,, C. Van Den Eynde,, V Van Gerwen,, H. Azijn,, M. Van Houtte,, F. Peeters,, S. Staszewski,, M. Conant,, S. Bloor,, S. Kemp,, B. Larder, and , R. Pausels. 1998. A rapid method for simultaneous detection of phenotypic resistance to inhibitors of protease and reverse transcriptase in recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from patients treated with antiretroviral drugs. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:269276.
32. Highbarger, H.,, W. G. Alvord,, M. K. Jiang,, A. Shah,, J. Metcalf,, H. C. Lane, and , R. Dewar. 1999. Comparison of the Quantiplex version 3.0 assay and a sensitized Amplicor Monitor assay for measurement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels in plasma samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:36123614.
33. Hirschel, B., and , M. Opravil. 1999. The year in review: antiretroviral treatment. AIDS 13(Suppl. A):S177S187.
34. Holguin, A.,, K. Hertogs, and , V. Soriano. 2003. Performance of drug resistance assays in testing HIV-1 non-B subtypes. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 9:323326.
35. Imamichi, T.,, S. C. Berg,, H. Imamichi,, J. C. Lopez,, J. A. Metcalf,, J. Falloon, and , H. C. Lane. 2000. Relative replication fitness of a high-level 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine-resistant variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 possessing an amino acid deletion at codon 67 and a novel substitution (Thr—Gly) at codon 69. J. Virol. 74:1095810964.
36. Jagodzinski, L. L.,, D. L. Wiggins,, J. L. McManis,, S. Emery,, J. Overbaugh,, M. Robb,, S. Bodrug, and , N. L. Michael. 2000. Use of calibrated viral load standards for group M subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to assess the performance of viral RNA quantitation tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:12471249.
37. Japour, A. J.,, D. L. Mayers,, V A. Johnson,, D. R. Kuritzkes,, L. A. Beckett,, J.-M. Arduino,, J. Lane,, R. J. Black,, P. S. Reichelderfer,, R. T. D’Aquila,, C. S. Crumpacker,The RV-43 Study Group, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Virology Committee Resistance Working Group. 1993. Standardized peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture assay for determination of drug susceptibilities of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:10951101.
38. Johnston, R. F.,, S. C. Pickett, and , D. L. Barker. 1990. Autoradiography using storage phosphor technology. Electrophoresis 11:355360.
39. Kuritzkes, D. R.,, R. M. Grant,, P. Feorino,, M. Griswold,, M. Hoover,, R. Young,, S. Day,, R. M. Lloyd, Jr.,, C. Reid,, G. F. Morgan, and , D. L. Winslow. 2003. Performance characteristics of the TRUGENE HIV-1 genotyping kit and the Opengene DNA sequencing system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:15941599.
40. Lathey, J. L.,, S. A. Fiscus,, S. Rasheed,, J. C. Kappes,, B. P. Griffith,, T. Elbeik,, S. A. Spector, and , P. S. Reichelderfer. 1994. Optimization of quantitative culture assay for human immunodeficiency virus from plasma. Plasma Viremia Group Laboratories of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases). J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:30643067.
41. Lewin, S. R.,, M. Vesanen,, L. Kostrikis,, A. Hurley,, M. Duran,, L. Zhang,, D. D. Ho, and , M. Markowitz. 1999. Use of real-time PCR and molecular beacons to detect virus replication in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals on prolonged effective antiretroviral therapy. J. Virol. 73:60996103.
42. Li, T. S.,, R. Tubiana,, C. Katlama,, V. Calvez,, H. Ait Mohand, and , B. Autran. 1998. Long-lasting recovery in CD4 T-cell function and viral-load reduction after highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV-1 disease. Lancet 351:16821686.
43. Longo, M. C.,, M. S. Berninger, and , J. L. Hartley. 1990. Use of uracil DNA glycosylase to control carry-over contamination in polymerase chain reaction. Gene 93:125128.
44. Maes, B.,, Y. Schrooten,, J. Snoeck,, I. Derdelinckx,, M. Van Ranst,, A. M. Vandamme, and , K. Van Laethem. 2004. Performance of ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system in routine practice at a Belgian clinical laboratory. J. Virol. Methods 119:4549.
45. Menzo, S.,, P. Bagnarelli,, M. Giacca,, A. Manzin,, P. E. Varaldo, and , M. Clementi. 1992. Absolute quantitation of viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection by competitive reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:17521757.
46. Mulder, J.,, N. McKinney,, C. Christopherson,, J. Sninsky,, L. Greenfield, and , S. Kwok. 1994. Rapid and simple PCR assay for quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma: application to acute retroviral infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:292300.
47. Myers, G.,, B. T. Korber,, S. Wain-Hobson,, R. Smith, and , G. N. Pavlakas. 1995. Human Retroviruses and AIDS: a Compilation and Analysis of Nucleic Acid and Amino Acid Sequences. [Online.] Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group T-10, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N. Mex. http://hiv-web.lanl.gov.
48. Myint, L.,, M. Matsuda,, Z. Matsuda,, Y. Yokomaku,, T. Chiba,, A. Okano,, K. Yamada, and , W. Sugiura. 2004. Gag non-cleavage site mutations contribute to full recovery of viral fitness in protease inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:444452.
49. Natarajan, V.,, M. Bosche,, J. A. Metcalf,, D. J. Ward,, H. C. Lane, and , J. A. Kovacs. 1999. HIV-1 replication in patients with undetectable plasma virus receiving HAART. Lancet 353:119120.
50. Natarajan, V.,, R. J. Plishka,, E. W. Scott,, H. C. Lane, and , N. P. Salzman. 1994. An internally controlled virion PCR (ICVPCR) for the measurement of HIV-1 RNA in plasma. PCR Methods Applic. 3:346350.
51. Parkin, N. T.,, N. S. Hellmann,, J. M. Whitcomb,, L. Kiss,, C. C. Chappey, and , C. J. Petropoulos. 2004. Natural variation of drug susceptibility in wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:437443.
52. Petropoulos, C. J.,, N. T. Parkin,, K. L. Limoli,, Y. S. Lie,, T. Wrin,, W. Huang,, H. Tian,, D. Smith,, G. A. Winslow,, D. J. Capon, and , J. M. Whitcomb. 2000. A novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:920928.
53. Piatak, M. M., Jr.,, S. Saag,, L. C. Yang,, S. J. Clark,, J. C. Kappes,, K.-C. Luk,, B. H. Hahn,, G. M. Shaw, and , J. D. Lifson. 1993. High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR. Science 259:17491754.
54. Qari, S. H.,, R. Respess,, H. Weinstock,, E. M. Beltrami,, K. Hertogs,, B. A. Larder,, C. J. Petropoulos,, N. Hellmann, and , W Heneine. 2002. Comparative analysis of two commercial phenotypic assays for drug susceptibility testing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:3135.
55. Sharkey, M. E.,, I. Teo,, T. Greenough,, N. Sharova,, K. Luzuriaga,, J. L. Sullivan,, R. P. Bucy,, L. G. Kostrikis,, A. Haase,, C. Veryard,, R. E. Davaro,, S. H. Cheeseman,, J. S. Daly,, C. Bova,, R. T. Ellison III,, B. Mady,, K. K. Lai,, G. Moyle,, M. Nelson,, B. Gazzard,, S. Shaunak, and , M. Stevenson. 2000. Persistence of episomal HIV-1 infection intermediates in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Nat. Med. 6:7681.
56. Wong, J. K.,, M. Hezareh,, H. F. Gunthard,, D. V. Havlir,, C. C. Ignacio,, C. A. Spina, and , D. D. Richman. 1997. Recovery of replication-competent HIV despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia. Science 278:12911295.
57. Zhang, L.,, B. Ramratnam,, K. Tenner-Racz,, H. Yuxian,, M. Vesanen,, S. Lewin,, A. Talal,, P. Racz,, A. S. Perelson,, B. T. Korber,, M. Markowitz, and , D. D. Ho. 1999. Quantifying residual HIV-1 replication in patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:16051613.
58. Zhang, Y.-M.,, H. Imamichi,, T. Imamichi,, H. C. Lane,, J. Falloon,, M. B. Vasudevachari, and , N. P. Salzman. 1997. Drug resistance during indinavir therapy is caused by mutations in the protease gene and in its Gag substrate cleavage sites. J. Virol. 71:66626670.

Tables

Generic image for table

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Generic image for table

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Generic image for table

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Generic image for table

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Generic image for table

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Generic image for table

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96
Generic image for table

Citation: Elbeik T, Highbarger H, Dewar R, Natarajan V, Imamichi H, Imamichi T. 2006. Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, p 862-877. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch96

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error