1887

Chapter 4 : Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap04-2.gif

Abstract:

Microbiological criteria provide the food industry and regulatory agencies with guidelines for control of food processing systems and are an underlying component of any critical control point that addresses a microbiological hazard in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems. Aerobic plate count (APC) or standard plate count (SPC) is commonly used to determine “total” numbers of microorganisms in a food product. Depending on the pathogen, low levels of the microorganism in the food product may or may not be of concern. Some microorganisms have such a low infective dose that their mere presence in a food presents a significant public health risk. For such microbes, the concern is not whether the pathogen is able to grow in the food but that the microorganism could survive for any length of time in the food. Food products frequently subject to contamination by harmful microorganisms, such as shellfish, may benefit from the application of microbiological criteria. Enterococci counts have few useful applications in microbiological criteria for food safety. Some microbiological criteria related to safety rely on tests for metabolites to indicate a potential hazard rather than direct tests for pathogenic or indicator microorganisms. The current acceptable limits are based on the criterion that there is an 80% probability that the plant is actually exceeding the target value if it exceeds the acceptable limit.

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Food Microbiology
1.0876732
Food Safety
0.9812429
Foodborne Illnesses
0.7819162
Salmonella enterica
0.5894855
1.0876732
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 4.1
Figure 4.1

Operating characteristic curve for = 10, = 2. From reference with permission.

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815912.ch04
1. Acuff, G. R. 1993. Microbiological criteria, p. A6.01A6.07. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Meat and Poultry Inspection. October 10–14, 1993. Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
2. Ahmed, F. E. (ed.). 1991. Seafood Safety. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
3. Amerine, M. A.,, R. M. Pangborn, and, E. B. Roessler. 1965. Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.
4. Anonymous. 1979. Shrimp Decomposition Workshop. National Shrimp Breaders and Processors Association, National Fisheries Institute, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Tampa, Fla.
5. Association of European Airlines. 1996. Hygiene Guidelines, Routine Microbiological Standards for Aircraft Ready Food. Association of European Airlines, Brussels, Belgium.
6. Bean, N. H.,, P. M. Griffin,, J. S. Goulding, and, C. B. Ivey. 1990. Foodborne disease outbreaks, 5-year summary, 1983–1987. J. Food Prot. 53:711728.
7. Beuchat, L. R. 1996. Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 59:204216.
8. Bryan, F. L. 1988. Risks associated with vehicles of food-borne pathogens and toxins. J. Food Prot. 51:498508.
9. Buchanan, R. L. 1995. The role of microbiological criteria and risk assessment in HACCP. Food Microbiol. 12:421424.
10. Buchanan, R. L. 1991. Microbiological criteria for cooked, ready-to-eat shrimp and crabmeat. Food Technol. 45:157160.
11. Buttiaux, R., and, D. A. A. Mossel. 1961. The significance of various organisms of faecal origin in foods and drinking water. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 24:353364.
12. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1981. Report of the 17th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. Alinorm 81/13. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
13. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1993. Report of the 20th Session of the Codex Commission on Food Hygiene. Alinorm 93/13A. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
14. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1997. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Food Hygiene, Supplement to Volume 1B-1997. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System and Guidelines for Its Application. Annex to CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
15. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1997. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. Proposed Draft Principles and Guidelines for the Conduct of Microbiological Risk Assessment. CX/FH 97/4. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
16. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1997. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Food Hygiene, Supplement to Volume 1B-1997. Recommended International Code of Practices, General Principles of Food Hygiene. CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
17. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1997. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Food Hygiene, Supplement to Volume 1B-1997. Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods. CAC/GL 21-997. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
18. Doyle, M. P. 1991. Should regulatory agencies reconsider the policy of zero-tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes in all ready-to-eat foods? Food Safety Notebook 2:98.
19. Eisenberg, W. V., and, S. M. Cichowicz. 1977. Machinery mold-indicator organism in food. Food Technol. 31:5256.
20. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). 1997. Risk Management and Food Safety. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Consultation, Rome, Italy. FAO food and nutrition paper 65. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization, Rome, Italy.
21. Food and Drug Administration. 1978. The Food Defect Action Levels. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.
22. Food and Drug Administration. 1989. Raw breaded shrimp—microbiological criteria for evaluating compliance with current good manufacturing practice regulations, (CPG 7108.25) chapter 8. In Compliance Policy Guides. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.
23. Hackney, C. R., and, M. D. Pierson (ed.). 1994. Environmental Indicators and Shellfish Safety. Chapman and Hall, New York, N.Y.
24. Hathaway, S. 1999. Management of food safety in international trade. Food Control 10:247253.
25. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). 1994. Choice of sampling plan and criteria for Listeria monocytogenes. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 22:8996.
26. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). 1986. Microorganisms in Foods 2. Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Applications, 2nd ed. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
27. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). 1997. Establishment of microbiological safety criteria for foods in international trade. World Health Stat. Q. 50:119123.
28. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). 1998. Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities. Blackie, London, England.
29. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). 2002. Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, N.Y.
30. Jay, J. M. 2000. Modern Food Microbiology, 6th ed. Aspen Pub., Gaithersburg, Md.
31. Jouve, J.-L. 1999. Establishment of food safety objectives. Food Control 10:303305.
32. Kilsby, D. 1982. Sampling schemes and limits, p. 387421, In M. H. Brown (ed.), Meat Microbiology. Applied Science Publishers, London, United Kingdom.
33. Kilsby, D.,, L. J. Aspinall, and, A. C. Baird-Parker. 1979. A system for setting numerical microbiological specifications for foods. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 46:591599.
34. Lammerding, A. M. 1997. An overview of microbial food safety risk assessment. J. Food Prot. 60:14201425.
35. Larmond, E. 1977. Laboratory Methods for Sensory Evaluation of Food. Pub. No. 1937. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Quebec, Canada.
36. Lupien, J. R., and, M. F. Kenny. 1998. Tolerance limits and methodology: effect on international trade. J. Food Prot. 61:15711578.
37. Malcolm, S. 1984. A note on the use of the non-central t-distribution in setting numerical specifications for foods. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 57:175177.
38. Marshall, R. T. (ed.). 1992. Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, 16th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
39. Mundt, J. O. 1970. Lactic acid bacteria associated with raw plant food materials. J. Milk Food Technol. 33:550553.
40. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. 1993. Generic HACCP for raw beef. Food Microbiol. 10:449488.
41. National Canners Association. 1968. Laboratory Manual for Food Canners and Processors, vol. 1. AVI Publishing, Westport, Conn.
42. National Research Council. 1985. An Evaluation of the Role of Microbiological Criteria for Foods and Food Ingredients. National Academic Press, Washington, D.C.
43. National Soft Drink Association. 1975. Quality Specifications and Test Procedures forBottler’s Granulated and Liquid Sugar.” National Soft Drink Association, Washington, D.C.
44. Pierson, M. D. 1996. Critical limits, significance and determination of critical limits, p. 7278. In Proceedings of the 2nd Australian HACCP Conference. Sydney, Australia.
45. Pierson, M. D., and, D. A. Corlett, Jr. (ed.). 1992. HACCP: Principles and Applications. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, N.Y.
46. Randell, A. W., and, A. J. Whitehead. 1997. Codex Alimentarius: food quality and safety standards for international trade. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. 16:313321.
47. Silliker, J. H. 1963. Total counts as indexes of food quality, p. 102112. In L. W. Slanetz,, C. O. Chichester,, A. R. Gaufin, and, Z. J. Ordal (ed.), Microbiological Quality of Foods. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.
48. Silliker, J. H., and, D. A. Gabis. 1976. ICMSF method studies. VII. Indicator tests as substitutes for direct testing of dried foods and feeds for Salmonella. Can. J. Microbiol. 22:971974.
49. Stannard, C. 1997. Development and use of microbiological criteria for foods. Food Sci. Technol. Today 11:137177.
50. Tauxe, R.,, H. Kruse,, C. Hedberg,, M. Potter,, J. Madden, and, K. Wachsmuth. 1997. Microbial hazards and emerging issues associated with produce: a preliminary report to the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. J. Food Prot. 60:14001408.
51. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1975. General specifications for approved dairy plants and standards for grades of dairy products. Fed. Regist. 40:4791047940.
52. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1995. Moving sum procedures for microbial testing in meat and poultry establishments. Science and Technology Program, Food Safety and Inspection Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
53. U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS). Pathogen reduction; hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems; proposed rule. Fed. Regist. 60:67746889.
54. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. 1965. National Shellfish Sanitation Program, Manual Operations. Part 1. Sanitation of Shellfish Growing Areas. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
55. U.S. Public Health Service/Food and Drug Administration. 1978. Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. 1978 Recommendations. PHS/FDA publication no. 229. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
56. van Schothorst, M. 1998. Principles for the establishment of microbiological food safety objectives and related control measures. Food Control 9:379384.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 4.1

Organisms highly correlated with product quality

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.2

Some microbial metabolic products that correlate with food quality

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.3

Plan stringency (case) in relation to degree of health hazard and conditions of use

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.4

Hazardous microorganisms and parasites grouped on the basis of risk severity

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.5

Microbiological criteria for verification of cooked, ready-to-eat shrimp and cooked, ready-to-eat crabmeat

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.6

Summary of cases and sampling plans for

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.7

Examples of various food products for which advisory microbiological criteria have been established

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.8

Examples of various food products for which mandatory microbiological criteria have been established

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.9

Moving-sum rules for meat and poultry commodities

Citation: Pierson M, Zink D, Smoot L. 2007. Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria, p 69-85. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch4

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error