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Chapter 5 : Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense

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Abstract:

This chapter examines the risk of intentional food contamination and provides an overview of current methods for evaluating risk and defining appropriate interventions. The microbial pathogens and toxins of most concern are listed, along with some of the potential chemical agents of concern provided for comparison; several references are available that go into significant detail on the agents of concern and illness progression and food protection more broadly. The chapter focuses specifically on biological contaminants, although a number of chemicals can also be of concern. A composite score is compiled for the food system or for the section of the food system that is under consideration. An overview of technologies currently available for use in analyzing food items for potential contamination can be found in recent articles. The overall food system risk management system that has developed over the last few decades serves as a sound and necessary foundation for approaches that will protect the food system from intentional abuse, but it is not sufficient. While similar to the continual improvement approach dictated by food safety systems to prevent unintentional microbiological contamination of food products, food system biosecurity represents an additional set of challenges. Ensuring that the biosecurity of the food system is not compromised will require that all aspects are addressed, with food microbiology being a necessary, but not the only, element.

Citation: Kennedy S, Busta F. 2007. Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense, p 87-102. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch5

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Food Microbiology
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Figures

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Figure 5.1

Generic ice cream production model.

Citation: Kennedy S, Busta F. 2007. Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense, p 87-102. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.2
Figure 5.2

Generic egg processing process flow diagram.

Citation: Kennedy S, Busta F. 2007. Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense, p 87-102. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch5
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 5.1

A survey of intentional food contamination events

Citation: Kennedy S, Busta F. 2007. Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense, p 87-102. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5.2

Potential food contamination agents

Citation: Kennedy S, Busta F. 2007. Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense, p 87-102. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5.3

Operational risk management semantic scales

Citation: Kennedy S, Busta F. 2007. Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense, p 87-102. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5.4

Operational risk management: grid for categorizing

Citation: Kennedy S, Busta F. 2007. Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense, p 87-102. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5.5

CARVER+Shock semantic scales

Citation: Kennedy S, Busta F. 2007. Biosecurity: Food Protection and Defense, p 87-102. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch5

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