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Chapter 6 : Meat, Poultry, and Seafood

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Abstract:

A muscle food, including meat, poultry, and seafood, is described as spoiled when it is considered unacceptable by consumers based on its sensory characteristics. Economic losses as well as the food wasted and loss of consumer confidence due to spoilage, however, are of major significance. Among bacteria, genera in the family , , () , , spp., spp., and lactic acid bacteria have been found to be major contributors to muscle food spoilage, depending on the product type and the conditions surrounding the product. Chemical (chlorine, organic acids, inorganic phosphates, proteins, oxidizers, etc.) or physical (knife-trimming, cold or hot water, vacuum, and/or steam) agents and combinations of two or more agents simultaneously or in sequence are applied as carcass decontamination/sanitization treatments in the United States. Acidic decontamination of meat may lead to changes in the dominating microbial association and if combined with long-term storage may lead to development of yeasts. The microbial associations developing on muscle tissues stored aerobically at cold temperatures are characterized by an oxidative metabolism. The contribution of specific nutrients to bacterial behavior has been shown in single-culture or coculture studies. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate and the first to be used by various microorganisms growing on muscle foods. Glycolytic enzymes indigenous to muscle tissues participate in the postmortem glycolysis that ceases when the ultimate postmortem pH reaches 5.4 to 5.5. Freshness and safety of muscle food products are generally considered the most important contributors to quality.

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6

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Food Microbiology
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Microbial Ecology
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Bacterial Proteins
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Chemicals
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Gram-Negative Bacteria
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Lactic Acid Bacteria
0.55935115
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Figure 6.1

Examples of development of microbial association in muscle foods.

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.2
Figure 6.2

Future trends for the evaluation of spoilage.

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
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Tables

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Table 6.1

Genera of microorganisms commonly found on meats, poultry, and seafood

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.2

Sources of microbial contamination of muscle foods

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.3

Bacteria associated with raw chilled muscle products

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.4

Specific spoilage microflora dominating on fresh meat stored at 0 to 4°C under different gas atmospheres

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.5

Common defects in meat products and causal bacteria

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.6

Order of substrate utilization during growth of major muscle spoilage bacteria

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.7

Proximate composition of lean muscle tissue

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.8

Average chemical composition of typical adult mammalian muscle and fish after rigor mortis and before commencement of decomposition postmortem

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.9

Main low-molecular-weight components of beef and fish pre- and post-rigor mortis

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.10

Distribution of microflora of beef knuckles vacuum packaged and stored for 21 days at 0 to 2°C in packages with oxygen transmission rates ranging from 1 to 400 cc/m/24 h

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.11

Factors and precursors affecting the production of malodorous end products of gram-negative bacteria (e.g., spp., , and ) inoculated in broth, a sterile model system, and naturally spoiled muscle

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.12

Factors and precursors affecting the maximum formation of end products of homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (, , and ) that were inoculated in broth, a sterile model system, and naturally spoiled meat

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.13

End products formed by in naturally spoiled meat, poultry, and fish or in model muscle systems (e.g., broth or gel cassette)

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.14

Production of biogenic amines by muscle microbial flora in muscle foods and broths

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.15

Compounds potentially useful for assessment of shelf life of raw meat and fish under different packaging conditions

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.16

Software available for modeling microbial changes

Citation: Nychas G, Marshall D, Sofos J. 2007. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 105-140. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch6

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