1887

Chapter 9 : Nuts and Cereals

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Nuts and Cereals, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter presents an overview of the behavior of microorganisms on nuts, cereals, and products, with particular emphasis on describing conditions that permit or inhibit growth and treatments that can be used for their control or elimination. Seed coats or pellicles are present on all nuts and develop from tissues originally surrounding the ovule. Worldwide, production, harvesting, and processing techniques for nuts range from highly mechanized to labor-intensive, and methods vary significantly for the various types of nuts. Water activity values of less than 0.70 essentially eliminate bacterial and fungal growth in nuts. Aflatoxins, produced by , , and , are the most common mycotoxins found in nuts and nut products. Soils are partially removed during harvest by forced air or sifting, but significant amounts may be brought into storage and processing facilities and can contaminate equipment and nuts during processing. Long-term storage temperatures range from 4°C to ambient, but after processing and packaging, nuts are generally distributed and displayed at the retail level at ambient temperature.

Citation: Danyluk M, Harris L, Sperber W. 2007. Nuts and Cereals, p 171-183. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Food Safety
0.5172301
Foodborne Illnesses
0.46880034
0.5172301
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 9.1
Figure 9.1

Survival during storage at 35 ± 2°C (◆), 23 ± 3°C (▪), 4 ± 2°C (▲), and −20 ± 2°C (×) of serovar Enteritidis PT 30 inoculated onto almonds at a population of approximately 7 log CFU/almond. Almonds stored at 35°C were not analyzed after 170 days ( ).

Citation: Danyluk M, Harris L, Sperber W. 2007. Nuts and Cereals, p 171-183. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815912.ch09
1. Alden, L. 2005. The cook’s thesaurus: nuts. [Online.] http://www.foodsubs.com/Nuts.html. Accessed 6 October 2005.
2. Almond Board of California. 2005. Industry resources: almonds from bloom to market. [Online.] http://www.almondboard.com/Resources/content.cfm?ItemNumber = 637. Accessed 5 October 2005.
3. Archer, J.,, E. T. Jervis,, J. Bird, and, J. E. Gaze. 1998. Heat resistance of Salmonella weltevreden in low-moisture environments. J. Food Prot. 61:969973.
4. Atwell, W. A. 2001. Wheat Flour. Eagan Press, St. Paul, Minn.
5. Beuchat, L. R. 1973. Escherichia coli on pecans: survival under various storage conditions and disinfection with propylene oxide. J. Food Sci. 38:10631066.
6. Beuchat, L. R. 1975. Incidence of molds on pecan nuts at different points during harvesting. Appl. Microbiol. 29:852854.
7. Beuchat, L. R. 1978. Relationship of water activity to moisture content in tree nuts. J. Food Sci. 43:754755, 758.
8. Beuchat, L. R. 1992. Enumeration of fungi in grain flours and meals as influenced by settling time in diluent and by the recovery medium. J. Food Prot. 55:899901.
9. Beuchat, L. R., and, E. K. Heaton. 1975. Salmonella survival on pecans as influenced by processing and storage conditions. Appl. Microbiol. 29:795801.
10. Bookwalter, G. N.,, R. J. Bothast,, W. F. Kwolek, and, M. R. Gumbmann. 1980. Nutritional stability of corn-soy-milk blends after dry heating to destroy salmonellae. J. Food Sci. 45:975980.
11. Bookwalter, G. N.,, T. P. Shukla, and, W. F. Kwolek. 1982. Microwave processing to destroy Salmonella in corn-soy-milk blends and effect on product quality. J. Food Sci. 47:16831686.
12. Brockmann, S. O.,, I. Piechotowski, and, P. Kimmig. 2004. Salmonella in sesame seed products. J. Food Prot. 67:178180.
13. Burnett, S. L.,, E. R. Gehm,, W. R. Weissinger, and, L. R. Beuchat. 2000. Survival of Salmonella in peanut butter and peanut butter spread. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89:472477.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1991. Cholera associated with imported frozen coconut milk—Maryland, 1991. MMWR dispatch 13 December 1991. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00015726.htm.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infections associated with raw almonds—United States and Canada, 2003–2004. MMWR dispatch 4 June 2004. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm53d604a1.htm.
16. Chipley, R. J., and, E. K. Heaton. 1971. Microbial flora of pecan meat. Appl. Microbiol. 22:252253.
17. Chou, J. H.,, P. H. Hwang, and, M. D. Malison. 1988. An outbreak of type A foodborne botulism in Taiwan due to commercially preserved peanuts. Int. J. Epidemiol. 17:899902.
18. Clavero, M. R. S.,, R. E. Brackett,, L. R. Beuchat, and, M. P. Doyle. 2000. Influence of water activity and storage conditions on survival and growth of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum in peanut spread. Food Microbiol. 17:5361.
19. Danyluk, M. D.,, M. T. Brandl, and, L. J. Harris. 2005. Migration of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 through almond hulls and shells, p. 158. Progr. Abstr. Book, 92nd Annu. Meet., Int. Assoc. Food Prot.
20. Danyluk, M. D.,, L. J. Harris, and, D. W. Schaffner. 2006. Monte Carlo simulations assessing the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of almonds. J. Food Prot. 69:15941599.
21. Danyluk, M. D.,, A. R. Uesugi, and, L. J. Harris. 2005. Survival of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on inoculated almonds after commercial fumigation with propylene oxide. J. Food Prot. 68:16131622.
22. D’Aoust, J.-Y.,, J. Maurer, and, J. S. Bailey. 2001. Salmonella species, p. 141178. In M. P. Doyle,, L. R. Beuchat, and, T. J. Montville (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
23. Denny, C. B.,, D. J. Goeke, Jr., and, R. Sternberg. 1969. Inoculation tests of Clostridium botulinum in canned breads with special reference to water activity. Research publication no. 4-69. National Canners Association, Washington, D.C.
24. Du, W.-X., and, L. J. Harris. 2005. Survival of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on almonds after exposure to hot oil, p. 109. Progr. Abstr. Book, 92nd Annu. Meet., Int. Assoc. Food Prot.
25. Du, W.-X., and, L. J. Harris. 2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous and alcohol-based quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reducing Salmonella in dusts generated in almond hulling and shelling facilities. Poster 89E-17, presented at Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists, 16 to 20 July 2005, New Orleans, La. [Online.] http://ift.confex.com/ift/2005/techprogram/paper_30016.htm.
26. Fisher, E. A., and, P. Halton. 1928. A study of “rope” in bread. Cereal Chem. 5:192208.
27. Freire, F. C. O., and, L. Offord. 2002. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices. Braz. J. Microbiol. 33:145148.
28. Glass, K. A., and, M. P. Doyle. 1991. Relationship between water activity of fresh pasta and toxin production by proteolytic Clostridium botulinum. J. Food Prot. 54:162165.
29. Guynot, M. E.,, A. J. Ramos,, V. Sanchis, and, S. Marin. 2005. Study of benzoate, propionate, and sorbate salts as mould spoilage inhibitors on intermediate moisture bakery products of low pH (4.5–5.5). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 101:161168.
30. Hao, D. Y.-Y.,, E. K. Heaton, and, L. R. Beuchat. 1989. Microbial, compositional, and other quality characteristics of pecan kernels stored at −20°C for 25 years. J. Food Sci. 54:472474.
31. Hesseltine, C. W. 1968. Flour and wheat: research on their microbiological flora. Baker’s Dig. 42:4046.
32. Hesseltine, C. W.,, R. R. Graves,, R. Rogers, and, H. R. Burmeister. 1969. Aerobic and facultative microflora of fresh and spoiled refrigerated dough products. Appl. Microbiol. 18:848853.
33. Hyndman, J. B. 1963. Comparison of enterococci and coliform microorganisms in commercially produced pecan nut meats. Appl. Microbiol. 11:268272.
34. Isaacs, S.,, J. Aramini,, B. Ceibin,, J. A. Farrar,, R. Ahmed,, D. Middleton,, A. U. Chandran,, L. J. Harris,, M. Howes,, E. Chan,, A. S. Pichette,, K. Campbell,, A. Gupta,, L. J. Lior,, M. Pearce,, C. Clark,, F. Rodgers,, F. Jamieson,, I. Brophy, and, A. Ellis. 2005. An international outbreak of salmonellosis associated with raw almonds contaminated with a rare phage type of Salmonella Enteritidis. J. Food Prot. 68:191198.
35. Kader, A. A. 1996. In-plant storage, p. 274277. In W. C. Micke (ed.), Almond Production Manual. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Oakland.
36. Kajs, T. M.,, R. Hagenmaier,, C. Vanderzant, and, K. F. Mattil. 1976. Microbiological evaluation of coconut and coconut products. J. Food Sci. 41:352356.
37. Kamphuis, H. J.,, M. I. Van der Horst,, R. A. Sampson,, F. M. Rombouts, and, S. Notermans. 1992. Mycological condition of maize products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 16:237245.
38. Killalea, D.,, L. R. Ward,, D. Roberts,, J. de Louvois,, F. Sufi,, J. M. Stuart,, P. G. Wall,, M. Susman,, M. Schwieger,, P. J. Sanderson,, I. S. T. Fisher,, P. S. Mead,, O. N. Gill,, C. L. R. Bartlett, and, B. Rowe. 1996. International epidemiological and microbiological study of outbreak of Salmonella Agona infection from a ready to eat savoury snack. I. England and Wales and the United States. Br. Med. J. 313:11051107.
39. King, A. D., Jr.,, W. U. Halbrook,, G. Fuller, and, L. C. Whitehand. 1983. Almond nutmeat moisture and water activity and its influence on fungal flora and seed composition. J. Food Sci. 48:615617.
40. King, A. D., Jr., and, T. Jones. 2001. Nut meats, p. 561563. In F. P. Downes and, K. Ito (ed.), Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
41. King, A. D., Jr.,, M. J. Miller, and, L. C. Eldridge. 1970. Almond harvesting, processing, and microbial flora. Appl.Microbiol. 20:208214.
42. Kirk, M. D.,, C. L. Little,, M. Lem,, M. Fyfe,, D. Genobile,, A. Tan,, J. Threlfall,, A. Paccagenella,, D. Lightfoot,, H. Lyi,, L. McIntyre,, L. Ward,, D. J. Brown,, S. Surnam, and, I. S. T. Fisher. 2004. An outbreak due to peanuts in their shell caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Stanley and Newport—sharing molecular information to solve international outbreaks. Epidemiol. Infect. 132:571577.
43. Kokal, D. 1965. Viability of Escherichia coli on English walnut meats (Juglans regia). J. Food Sci. 30:325332.
44. Kokal, D., and, D. W. Thorpe. 1969. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in almonds of nonpareil variety. Food Technol. 23:9398.
45. Kotzekidou, P. 1998. Microbial stability and fate of Salmonella Enteritidis in halva, a low-moisture confection. J. Food Prot. 61:181185.
46. Kurtzman, C. P., and, C. W. Hesseltine. 1970. Chlorine tolerance of microorganisms found in wheat and flour. Cereal Chem. 47:244246.
47. Lee, W. H.,, C. L. Staples, and, J. C. Olson, Jr. 1975. Staphylococcus aureus growth and survival in macaroni dough and the persistence of enterotoxins in the dried products. J. Food Sci. 40:119120.
48. Legan, J. D. 2000. Cereals and cereal products, p. 759783. In B. M. Lund,, T. C. Baird-Parker, and, G. W. Gould (ed.), The Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.
49. Marcus, K. A., and, H. J. Amling. 1973. Escherichia coli field contamination of pecan nuts. Appl. Microbiol. 26:279281.
50. Melnick, D.,, H. W. Vahlteich, and, A. Hackett. 1956. Sorbic acid as a fungistatic agent for foods. XI. Effectiveness of sorbic acid in protecting cakes. Food Res. 21:133146.
51. Meyer, L. T., and, R. H. Vaughn. 1969. Incidence of Escherichia coli in black walnut meats. Appl. Microbiol. 18:925931.
52. Mixon, A. C. 1980. Potential for aflatoxin contamination in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) before and after harvest—a review. J. Environ. Qual. 9:344349.
53. Mortimer, P. R., and, G. McCann. 1974. Food-poisoning episodes associated with Bacillus cereus in fried rice. Lancet i:10431045.
54. O’Brien, S.,, S. Brustin,, G. Duckworth, and, L. Ward. 1999. Salmonella Java phage type Dundee—rise in cases in England: update. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/1999/990318.asp. Accessed 11 December 2003.
55. O’Grady, K. A.,, J. Powling,, A. Tan,, M. Valcanis,, D. Light-foot,, J. Gregory,, K. Lalor,, R. Guy,, B. Ingle,, R. Andrews,, S. Crerar, and, R. Stafford. 2001. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104—Australia, Europe. Archive no. 20010822.1980. [Online.] http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed 18 October 2004.
56. O’Mahony, M.,, E. Mitchell,, R. J. Gilbert,, N. D. Hutchinson,, N. T. Begg,, J. C. Rodhouse, and, J. E. Morris. 1990. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with contaminated hazelnut yoghurt. Epidemiol. Infect. 104:385395.
57. Pettit, R. E., and, R. A. Taber. 1968. Factors influencing aflatoxin accumulation in peanut kernels and the associated mycoflora. Appl. Microbiol. 16:12301234.
58. Pitt, J. I.,, S. K. Dyer, and, S. McCammon. 1991. Systemic invasion of developing peanut plants by Aspergillus flavus. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 13:1620.
59. Pitt, J. I.,, A. D. Hocking,, K. Bhudhasamia,, B. F. Miscamble,, K. A. Wheeler, and, P. Tanboon-Ek. 1993. The normal microflora of commodities from Thailand. 1. Nuts and oil-seeds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 20:211216.
60. Rayman, M. K.,, J.-Y. D’Aoust,, B. Aris,, C. Maishmert, and, R. Wasik. 1979. Survival of microorganisms in stored pasta. J. Food Prot. 42:330334.
61. Riemann, H. 1968. Effect of water activity on the heat resistance of Salmonella in “dry” materials. Appl. Microbiol. 16:16211622.
62. Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, S.,, V. Verma,, A. Malik, and, G. N. Qazi. 2003. Microbiological quality of walnut kernels and apple juice concentrate. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 19:845850.
63. Rosengarten, F., Jr. 1984. The Book of Edible Nuts. Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, N.Y.
64. Sauer, D. B.,, R. A. Meronuck, and, C. M. Christenson. 1992. Microflora, p. 313340. In D. B. Sauer (ed.), Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products, 4th ed. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minn.
65. Schaffner, C. P.,, K. Mosbach,, V. C. Bibit, and, C. H. Watson. 1967. Coconut and Salmonella infection. Appl. Microbiol. 15:471475.
66. Schebor, C., and, J. Chirife. 2000. A survey of water activity and pH values in fresh pasta packed under modified atmosphere manufactured in Argentina and Uruguay. J. Food Prot. 63:965969.
67. Scheil, W.,, S. Cameron,, C. Dalton,, C. Murray, and, D. Wilson. 1998. A South Australian Salmonella Mbandaka outbreak investigation using a database to select controls. Aust. N. Z. J. Public Health 22:536539.
68. Shelf Stable Bakery Product Subcommittee. 2005. Voluntary protocol for the safety of an unrefrigerated pumpkin pie product during shelf and use life. Am. Inst. Baking Tech. Bull. 27(5).
69. Shohat, T.,, M. S. Green,, D. Merom,, O. N. Gill,, A. Reisfeld,, A. Matas,, D. Blau,, N. Gal, and, P. E. Slater. 1996. International epidemiological and microbiological study of outbreak of Salmonella agona infection from a ready to eat savoury snack. II. Israel. Br. Med. J. 313:11071109.
70. Smith, J. P.,, B. Ooraikul,, W. J. Koersen,, E. D. Jackson, and, R. A. Lawrence. 1986. Novel approach to oxygen control in modified atmosphere packaging of bakery products. Food Microbiol. 3:315320.
71. Sperber, W. H. 1982. Requirements of Clostridium botulinum for growth and toxin production. Food Technol. 36:8994.
72. Sperber, W. H. 1983. Influence of water activity on food-borne bacteria—a review. J. Food Prot. 46:142150.
73. Sperber, W. H. 2003. Microbiology of milled cereal grains. Int. Assoc. Operative Millers Tech. Bull. 3:79297931.
74. Spicher, G. 1985. On the question of dough product hygiene. Third communication. The microbiological quality of currently available commercial dough products. Getreide Mehl Brot 39:212215.
75. St. Clair, V. J., and, M. M. Klenk. 1990. Performance of three methods for the rapid identification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated foods and feeds. J. Food Prot. 53:161164.
76. Taylor, J. L.,, J. Tuttle,, T. Pramukul,, K. O’Brien,, T. J. Barrett,, B. Jolbaito,, Y. L. Lim,, D. J. Vugia,, J. G. Morris, Jr.,, R. V. Tauxe, and, D. M. Dwyer. 1993. An outbreak of cholera in Maryland associated with imported commercial frozen fresh coconut milk. J. Infect. Dis. 167:13301335.
77. Uesugi, A. R.,, M. D. Danyluk, and, L. J. Harris. 2006. Survival of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 on inoculated almonds stored at −20, 4, 23, and 35°C. J. Food Prot. 69:18511857.
78. Uesugi, A. R., and, L. J. Harris. 2005. Survival of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on almonds after exposure to hot water, p. 109. Progr. Abstr. Book, 92nd Annu. Meet., Int. Assoc. Food Prot.
79. Uesugi, A. R., and, L. J. Harris. 2006. Growth of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 in almond hull and shell slurries and survival in drying almond hulls. J. Food Prot. 69:712718.
80. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2005. The food defect action levels. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼dms/dalbook.html.
81. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 19 August 2005. Bulletin to the food service and retail food store industry regarding cake batter ice cream and similar products. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼ear/ret-batt.html.
82. Valik, L., and, F. Görner. 1993. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in pasta in relation to its water activity. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 20:4548.
83. VanCauwenberge, J. E.,, R. J. Bothast, and, W. F. Kwolek. 1981. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes in dry corn flour. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42:688691.
84. Vora, H. M., and, J. S. Sidhu. 1987. Effect of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide on the shelf life of bread. Chem. Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebensm. 11:5659.
85. Wareing, P. W.,, L. Nicolaides, and, D. R. Twiddy. 2000. Nuts and nut products, p. 919940. In B. M. Lund,, T. C. Baird-Parker, and, G. W. Gould (ed.), The Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.
86. Watkins, E. J. 1906. Ropiness in flour and bread and its detection and prevention. J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 25:350355.
87. Wells, J. M. 1980. Toxigenic fungi isolated from late-season pecans. J. Food Saf. 4:213220.
88. Wilson, M. M., and, E. F. Mackenzie. 1955. Typhoid fever and salmonellosis due to consumption of infected desiccated coconut. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 18:510521.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 9.1

Outbreaks of illness associated with the consumption of nuts

Citation: Danyluk M, Harris L, Sperber W. 2007. Nuts and Cereals, p 171-183. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 9.2

U.S. FDA defect action levels for insect and rodent contamination of grains and cereal products

Citation: Danyluk M, Harris L, Sperber W. 2007. Nuts and Cereals, p 171-183. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 9.3

Microbiological profile of wheat flour

Citation: Danyluk M, Harris L, Sperber W. 2007. Nuts and Cereals, p 171-183. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 9.4

Geometric mean values of combined yeast and mold counts in several milled cereal grains

Citation: Danyluk M, Harris L, Sperber W. 2007. Nuts and Cereals, p 171-183. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error