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This chapter provides a review of the basic biology, ecology, pathogenicity, and epidemiology of known as an emerging opportunistic foodborne pathogen. produces colonies with distinct morphologies. The chapter describes susceptibility of to physical and chemical treatments. The major food product linked to cases of infection is powdered infant formula (PIF). The natural habitat of remains unknown. In recent years, efforts have focused on detecting this organism in a wide variety of environments. has been isolated from environmental samples such as water, dust, soil, plant materials, mud, and even household vacuum cleaner bags, indicating that its ecological niche is quite diverse. One of the most commonly used methods for isolation of from PIF was described by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA method was developed for the isolation and enumeration of from PIF. has been associated mainly with necrotizing enterocolitis, septicemia, and meningitis. Most of the infections that have been reported have occurred in developed nations. The chapter focuses on virulence factors and pathogenicity of . Several studies have described the resistance of Enterobacter isolates to quinolones, ß-lactams, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. has been reported as being more sensitive than other Enterobacter spp. to some antibiotics including the aminoglycosides, ureidopenicillins, ampicillin, and carboxypenicillins. has become a growing concern for government regulatory agencies, health care providers, and PIF manufacturers.

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13

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Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
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Generic image for table
Table 13.1

Biochemical characterization of

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.2

Biochemical profiles useful for differentiation of and

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.3

Guidelines for reconstituted PIF and human breast milk powder-fortified preparation and handling

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.4

Microbiological criteria to be applied to PIF

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.5

Foods from which has been isolated

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.6

Summary of isolation and enumeration methods for

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.7

Summary of cases and outbreaks in infants reported in the literature

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13

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