1887

Chapter 13 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap13-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter provides a review of the basic biology, ecology, pathogenicity, and epidemiology of known as an emerging opportunistic foodborne pathogen. produces colonies with distinct morphologies. The chapter describes susceptibility of to physical and chemical treatments. The major food product linked to cases of infection is powdered infant formula (PIF). The natural habitat of remains unknown. In recent years, efforts have focused on detecting this organism in a wide variety of environments. has been isolated from environmental samples such as water, dust, soil, plant materials, mud, and even household vacuum cleaner bags, indicating that its ecological niche is quite diverse. One of the most commonly used methods for isolation of from PIF was described by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA method was developed for the isolation and enumeration of from PIF. has been associated mainly with necrotizing enterocolitis, septicemia, and meningitis. Most of the infections that have been reported have occurred in developed nations. The chapter focuses on virulence factors and pathogenicity of . Several studies have described the resistance of Enterobacter isolates to quinolones, ß-lactams, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. has been reported as being more sensitive than other Enterobacter spp. to some antibiotics including the aminoglycosides, ureidopenicillins, ampicillin, and carboxypenicillins. has become a growing concern for government regulatory agencies, health care providers, and PIF manufacturers.

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Chemicals
0.47529975
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
0.4737928
Viruses
0.40612268
0.47529975
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 13.1
Figure 13.1

Pathogenesis of

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
1. Acoignard, B.,, V. Vaillant,, J. P. Vincent,, A. Leflèche,, P. Mariani-Kurkdjian,, C. Bernet,, F. L’Hériteau,, H. Sénéchal,, P. Grimont,, E. Bingen, and, J. C. Desenclos. 2006. Infections sévères à Enterobacter sakazakii chez des nouveaunés ayant consommé une préparation en poudre pour nourrissons, France, octobre-décembre 2004. Bull. Epidemiol. Hebd. 2-3:1013.
2. Adamson, D. H., and, J. R. Rogers. 1981. Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis with sepsis. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 3:1920.
3. Agostoni, C.,, I. Axelsson,, O. Goulet,, B. Koletzko,, K. F. Michaelsen,, J. W. Puntis,, J. Rigo,, R. Shamir,, H. Szajewska,, D. Turck,, Y. Vandenplas, and, L. T. Weaver. 2004. Preparation and handling of powdered infant formula: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 39:320322.
4. Arseni, A.,, E. Malamou-Ladas,, C. Koutsia,, M. Xanthou, and, E. Trikka. 1987. Outbreak of colonization of neonates with Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Hosp. Infect. 9:143150.
5. Bar-Oz, B.,, A. Preminger,, O. Peleg,, C. Block, and, I. Arad. 2001. Enterobacter sakazakii infection in the newborn. Acta Paediatr. 90:356358.
6. Barreira, E. R.,, D. Costa de Souza,, P. de Freitas Góis, and, J. C. Fernandes. 2003. Meningite por Enterobacter sakazakii em recém-nascido: relato de caso. Pediatria (São Paulo) 25:6570.
7. Biering, G.,, S. Karlsson,, N. C. Clark,, K. E. Jonsdottir,, P. Ludvigsson, and, O. Steingrimsson. 1989. Three cases of neonatal meningitis caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:20542056.
8. Block, C.,, O. Peleg,, N. Minster,, B. Bar-Oz,, A. Simhon,, I. Arad, and, M. Shapiro. 2002. Cluster of neonatal infections in Jerusalem due to unusual biochemical variant of Enterobacter sakazakii. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21:613616.
9. Bowen, A. B., and, C. R. Braden. 2006. Invasive Enterobacter sakazakii disease in infants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. [Serial online.] http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no08/05-1509.htm.
10. Breeuwer, P.,, A. Lardeau,, M. Peterz, and, H. M. Joosten. 2003. Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95:967973.
11. Brenner, D. J. 1974. DNA reassociation for the clinical differentiation of enteric bacteria. Public Health Lab. 32:118130.
12. Brenner, D. J.,, J. J. Farmer III,, F. W. Hickman,, M. A. Asbury, and, A. G. Steigerwalt. 1977. Taxonomic and Nomenclature Changes in Enterobacteriaceae. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.
13. Burdette, J. H., and, C. Santos. 2000. Enterobacter sakazakii brain abscess in the neonate: the importance of neuroradiologic imaging. Pediatr. Radiol. 30:3334.
14. Chan, G. M. 2003. Effects of powdered human milk fortifiers on the antibacterial actions of human milk. J. Perinatol. 23:620623.
15. Chow, J. W.,, M. J. Fine,, D. M. Shlaes,, J. P. Quinn,, D. C. Hooper,, M. P. Johnson,, R. Ramphal,, M. M. Wagener,, D. K. Miyashiro, and, V. L. Yu. 1991. Enterobacter bacteremia: clinical features and emergence of antibiotic resistance during therapy. Ann. Intern. Med. 115:585590.
16. Clark, N. C.,, B. C. Hill,, C. M. O’Hara,, O. Steingrimsson, and, R. C. Cooksey. 1990. Epidemiologic typing of Enterobacter sakazakii in two neonatal nosocomial outbreaks. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13:467472.
17. Clementino, M. M.,, I. de Filippis,, C. R. Nascimento,, R. Branquinho,, C. L. Rocha, and, O. B. Martins. 2001. PCR analyses of tRNA intergenic spacer, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA reveal inter- and intraspecific relationships of Enterobacter cloacae strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:38653870.
18. Cottyn, B.,, E. Regalado,, B. Lanoot,, M. De Cleene,, T. W. Mew, and, J. Swings. 2001. Bacterial populations associated with rice seed in the tropical environment. Phytopathology 91:282292.
19. Coulin, P.,, Z. Farah,, J. Assanvo,, H. Spillmann, and, Z. Puhan. 2006. Characterisation of the microflora of attieke, a fermented cassava product, during traditional small-scale preparation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 106:131136. (First published 5 October 2005.)
20. Cruz, A. C.,, E. Fernandez,, E. Salinas,, P. Ramirez,, C. Montiel, and, C. A. Eslaval. 2004. Characterization of Enterobacter sakazakii isolated from different sources, abstr. Q-051. Abstr. 104th Gen. Mtg. Am. Soc. Microbiol., 23–27 May, New Orleans, La.
21. Dauga, C. 2002. Evolution of the gyrB gene and the molecular phylogeny of Enterobacteriaceae: a model molecule for molecular systematic studies. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:531547.
22. Dennison, S. K., and, J. Morris. 2002. Multiresistant Enterobacter sakazakii wound infection in an adult. Infect. Med. 19:533535.
23. Edelson-Mammel, S. G., and, R. L. Buchanan. 2004. Thermal inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in rehydrated infant formula. J. Food Prot. 67:6063.
24. Edelson-Mammel, S. G.,, M. K. Porteous, and, R. L. Buchanan. 2005. Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula. J. Food Prot. 68:19001902.
25. Emery, C. L., and, L. A. Weymouth. 1997. Detection and clinical significance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in a tertiary-care medical center. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:20612067.
26. Estuningsih, E. 2004. Present Work and Future Research Needs on Enterobacter sakazakii. FAO/WHO regional conference on food safety for Asia and Pacific, Seremban, Malaysia, 24–27 May.
27. Farmer, J. J.,, M. A. Asbury,, F. W. Hickman,, D. J. Brenner, andthe Enterobacteriaceae Study Group. 1980. Enterobacter sakazakii, new species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:569584.
28. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1994. Codex Alimentarius: Code of Hygienic Practice for Foods for Infants and Children. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
29. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. 2004. Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Enterobacter sakazakii and Other Microorganisms in Powdered Infant Formula. Geneva, 2–5 February, 2004. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. [Online.] http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/mra6/en/.
30. Foreman, S. D.,, E. E. Smith,, N. J. Ryan, and, G. R. Hogan. 1984. Neonatal Citrobacter meningitis: pathogenesis of cerebral abscess formation. Ann. Neurol. 16:655659.
31. Gallagher, P. G., and, W. S. Ball. 1991. Cerebral infarctions due to CNS infection with Enterobacter sakazakii. Pediatr. Radiol. 21:135136.
32. Garrity, G.,, D. J. Brenner,, N. Krigg, and, J. T. Staley. 2005. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. II. The Proteobacteria, Part B. The Gammaproteobacteria. Springer, New York, N.Y.
33. Gassem, M. A. 1999. Study of the microorganisms associated with the fermented bread (khamir) produced from sorghum in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86:221225.
34. Gram, L.,, A. B. Christensen,, L. Ravn,, S. Molin, and, M. Givskov. 1999. Production of acylated homoserine lactones by psychrotrophic members of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:34583463.
35. Guillaume-Gentil, O.,, V. Sonnard,, M. C. Kandhai,, J. D. Marugg, and, H. Joosten. 2005. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. J. Food Prot. 68:6469.
36. Gurtler, J. B., and, L. R. Beuchat. 2005. Performance of media for recovering stressed cells of Enterobacter sakazakii as determined using spiral plating and ecometric techniques. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:76617669.
37. Gurtler, J. B.,, J. L. Kornacki, and, L. R. Beuchat. 2005. Enterobacter sakazakii: a coliform of increased concern to infant health. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 104:134.
38. Hamilton, J. V.,, M. J. Lehane, and, H. R. Braig. 2003. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii from midgut of Stomoxys calcitrans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:13551356.
39. Harris, L. S., and, P. J. Oriel. 21 February 1989. Heteropolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter sakazakii. U.S. patent 4,806,636.
40. Hawkins, R. E.,, C. R. Lissner, and, J. P. Sanford. 1991. Enterobacter sakazakii bacteremia in an adult. South. Med. J. 84:793795.
41. Health Canada (Health Professional Advisory). 2002. Enterobacter sakazakii infection and powdered infant formulas. [Online.] http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/illintox/esakazakii/enterobacter_sakazakii_e.html. Accessed 3 February 2006.
42. Health Protection Agency. 2004. Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter spp bacteraemia, England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: 2003. CDR Wkly. 20 May 2004, vol. 14, no. 21. [Serial online.] http://www.hpa.org.uk/cdr/archives/2004/bact_2104.pdf.
43. Hengge-Aronis, R.,, W. Klein,, R. Lange,, M. Rimmele, and, W. Boos. 1991. Trehalose synthesis genes are controlled by the putative sigma factor encoded by rpoS and are involved in stationary-phase thermotolerance in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 173:79187924.
44. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. 2002. Microorganisms in Foods, vol. 7. Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management, p. 128130. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, N.Y.
45. International Organisation for Standardization. 2006. Milk and Milk Products—Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii(TC 34/SC; ISO Standards). Document ISO/TS 22964: 2006. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
46. Iversen, C., and, S. Forsythe. 2003. Risk profile of Enterobacter sakazakii, an emergent pathogen associated with infant milk formula. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 14:443454.
47. Iversen, C.,, N. Lazar Adler, and, S. J. Forsythe. 2004. Virulence factors of Enterobacter sakazakii, abstr. P-108. Abstr. 104th Gen. Mtg. Am. Soc. Microbiol., 23–27 May, New Orleans, La.
48. Iversen, C.,, J. Caubilla-Baron, and, S. Forysthe. 2004. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacteriaceae, and other microbial contaminants from powdered infant formula milk and related products, abstr. P-004. Abstr. 104th Gen. Mtg. Am. Soc. Microbiol., 23–27 May, New Orleans, La.
49. Iversen, C.,, P. Druggan, and, S. Forsythe. 2004. A selective differential medium for Enterobacter sakazakii, a preliminary study. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 96:133139.
50. Iversen, C.,, M. Lane, and, S. J. Forsythe. 2004. The growth profile, thermotolerance and biofilm formation of Enterobacter sakazakii grown in infant formula milk. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 38:378382.
51. Iversen, C.,, M. Waddington,, S. L. On, and, S. Forsythe. 2004. Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:53685370.
52. Jimenez, E. B., and, C. Gimenez. 1982. Septic shock due to Enterobacter sakazakii. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 4:30.
53. Joker, R. N.,, T. Norholm, and, K. E. Siboni. 1965. A case of neonatal meningitis caused by a yellow Enterobacter. Danish Med. Bull. 12:128130.
54. Kandhai, M. C.,, M. W. Reij,, L. G. Gorris,, O. Guillaume-Gentil, and, M. van Schothorst. 2004. Occurrence of Enterobacter sakazakii in food production environments and households. Lancet 363:3940.
55. Kandhai, M. C.,, M. W. Reij,, K. van Puyvelde,, O. Guillaume-Gentil,, R. R. Beumer, and, M. van Schothorst. 2004. A new protocol for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii applied to environmental samples. J. Food Prot. 67:12671270.
56. Keller, R.,, M. A. Pedroso,, R. Ritchman, and, R. M. Silva. 1998. Occurrence of virulence associated properties in Enterobacter cloacae. Infect. Immun. 66:645649.
57. Kempf, B., and, E. Bremer. 1998. Uptake and synthesis of compatible solutes as microbial stress responses to high-osmolality environments. Arch. Microbiol. 170:319330.
58. Keyser, M.,, R. C. Witthuhn,, L. C. Ronquest, and, T. J. Britz. 2003. Treatment of winery effluent with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) granular sludges enriched with Enterobacter sakazakii. Biotechnol. Lett. 25:18931898.
59. Kindle, G.,, A. Busse,, D. Kampa,, U. Meyer-Koenig, and, F. D. Daschner. 1996. Killing activity of microwaves in milk. J. Hosp. Infect. 33:273278.
60. Kleiman, M. B.,, S. D. Allen,, P. Neal, and, J. Reynolds. 1981. Meningoencephalitis and compartmentalization of the cerebral ventricles caused by Enterobacter sakazakii. J.Clin. Microbiol. 14:352354.
61. Kline, M. W. 1988. Pathogenesis of brain abscess caused by Citrobacter diversus or Enterobacter sakazakii. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7:891892.
62. Kuzina, L. V.,, J. J. Peloquin,, D. C. Vacek, and, T. A. Miller. 2001. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Curr. Microbiol. 42:290294.
63. Lai, K. K. 2001. Enterobacter sakazakii infections among neonates, infants, children, and adults. Case reports and a review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 80:113122.
64. Lange, R., and, R. Hengge-Aronis. 1991. Growth phase-regulated expression of bolA and morphology of stationary-phase Escherichia coli cells are controlled by the novel sigma factor σs. J. Bacteriol. 173:44744481.
65. Lange, R., and, R. Hengge-Aronis. 1991. Identification of a central regulator of stationary-phase gene expression in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 5:4959.
66. Leclercq, A.,, C. Wanegue, and, P. Baylac. 2002. Comparison of fecal coliform agar and violet red bile lactose agar for fecal coliform enumeration in foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:16311638.
67. Lecour, H.,, A. Seara,, J. Cordeiro, and, M. Miranda. 1989. Treatment of childhood bacterial meningitis. Infection 17:343346.
68. Lehner, A.,, K. Riedel,, L. Eberl,, P. Breeuwer,, B. Diep, and, R. Stephan. 2005. Biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell signaling in various Enterobacter sakazakii strains: aspects promoting environmental persistence. J. Food Prot. 68:22872294.
69. Lehner, A., and, R. Stephan. 2004. Microbiological, epidemiological, and food safety aspects of Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Food Prot. 67:28502857.
70. Lehner, A.,, T. Tasara, and, R. Stephan. 2004. 16S rRNA gene based analysis of Enterobacter sakazakii strains from different sources and development of a PCR assay for identification. BMC Microbiol. 4:43.
71. Lenati, R.,, K. Hebert,, J. Farber, and, F. Pagotto. The growth and survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in fortified and nonfortified human breast milk and reconstituted powdered infant formula. Unpublished data.
72. Lenati, R.,, K. Hebert,, J. Farber, and, F. Pagotto. Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii isolates in frozen crab meat and in reconstituted powdered infant formula. Unpublished data.
73. Lenati, R.,, K. Hébert,, Y. Kou,, S. McIlwham,, K. Tyler,, J. Farber, and, F. Pagotto. A comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 220 strains of Enterobacter sakazakii. Unpublished data.
74. Leuschner, R. G., and, J. Bew. 2004. A medium for the presumptive detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula: interlaboratory study. J. AOAC Int. 87:604613.
75. Liu, Y.,, Q. Gao,, X. Zhang,, Y. Hou,, J. Yang, and, X. Huang. 2006. PCR and oligonucleotide array for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula. Mol. Cell. Probes 1:1117.
76. Malorny, B., and, M. Wagner. 2005. Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii strains by real-time PCR. J. Food Prot. 68:16231627.
77. Monroe, P. W., and, W. L. Tift. 1979. Bacteremia associated with Enterobacter sakazakii (yellow, pigmented Enterobacter cloacae). J. Clin. Microbiol. 10:850851.
78. Mosso, M. A.,, M. C. de la Rosa,, C. Vivar, and, M. R. Medina. 1994. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in the mineral waters of thermal springs in Spain. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 77:370381.
79. Muytjens, H. L., and, L. A. Kollee. 1990. Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis in neonates: causative role of formula? Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9:372373.
80. Muytjens, H. L., and, J. van der Rosvan de Repe. 1986. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of eight Enterobacter species, with special reference to Enterobacter sakazakii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:367370.
81. Muytjens, H. L., and, L. A. Kollee. 1982. Neonatal meningitis due to Enterobacter sakazakii. Tijdschr. Kindergeneeskd. 50:110112.
82. Muytjens, H. L.,, H. Roelofs-Willemse, and, G. H. Jaspar. 1988. Quality of powdered substitutes for breast milk with regard to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:743746.
83. Muytjens, H. L.,, H. C. Zanen,, H. J. Sonderkamp,, L. A. Kollee,, I. K. Wachsmuth, and, J. J. Farmer III. 1983. Analysis of eight cases of neonatal meningitis and sepsis due to Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:115120.
84. Nair, M. K.,, J. Joy, and, K. S. Venkitanarayanan. 2004. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula by monocaprylin. J. Food Prot. 67:28152819.
85. Naqvi, S. H.,, M. A. Maxwell, and, L. M. Dunkle. 1985. Cefotaxime therapy of neonatal gram-negative bacillary meningitis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 4:499502.
86. Nassereddin, R. A., and, M. I. Yamani. 2005. Microbiological quality of sous and tamarind, traditional drinks consumed in Jordan. J. Food Prot. 68:773777.
87. Nazarowec-White, M., and, J. M. Farber. 1999. Phenotypic and genotypic typing of food and clinical isolates of Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Med. Microbiol. 48:559567.
88. Nazarowec-White, M., and, J. M. Farber. 1997. Enterobacter sakazakii: a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 34:103113.
89. Nazarowec-White, M., and, J. M. Farber. 1997. Thermal resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted dried-infant formula. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 24:913.
90. New Zealand Ministry of Health. April 5, 2005. News and Issues: E. sakazakii Meningitis To Become a Notifiable Disease. [Online.] www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/bfc540e5ac1abe02cc256e7d0082eede/d6081bec1d116521cc256fd90074d556?OpenDocument#1. Accessed 1 February 2006.
91. Nielsen, A. C. Personal communication.
92. Noriega, F. R.,, K. L. Kotloff,, M. A. Martin, and, R. S. Schwalbe. 1990. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by Enterobacter sakazakii and Leuconostoc mesenteroides resulting from extrinsic contamination of infant formula. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9:447449.
93. Oh, S. W., and, D. H. Kang. 2004. Fluorogenic selective and differential medium for isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:56925694.
94. Pagotto, F. J.,, M. Nazarowec-White,, S. Bidawid, and, J. M. Farber. 2003. Enterobacter sakazakii: infectivity and enterotoxin production in vitro and in vivo. J. Food Prot. 66:370375.
95. Pangalos, G. 1929. Sur un bacille chromogene isole par hemoculture. C. R. Soc. Biol. 100:1097.
96. Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group of the American Dietetic Association. 2004. Infant Feedings: Guidelines for Preparation of Formula and Breastmilk in Health Care Facilities. [Online.] http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/nutrition_5441_ENU_HTML.htm. Accessed 14 February 2006.
97. Pitout, J. D.,, E. S. Moland,, C. C. Sanders,, K. S. Thomson, and, S. R. Fitzsimmons. 1997. β-Lactamases and detection of β-lactam resistance in Enterobacter spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:3539.
98. Postupa, R., and, E. Aldova. 1984. Enterobacter sakazakii: a Tween 80 esterase-positive representative of the genus Enterobacter isolated from powdered milk specimens. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 28:435440.
99. Pribyl, C.,, R. Salzer,, J. Beskin,, R. J. Haddad,, B. Pollock,, R. Beville,, B. Holmes, and, W. J. Mogabgab. 1985. Aztreonam in the treatment of serious orthopaedic infections. Am. J. Med. 78:5156.
100. Reina, J.,, F. Parras,, J. Gil,, F. Salva, and, P. Alomar. 1989. Human infections caused by Enterobacter sakazakii. Microbiologic considerations. Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin. 7:147150.
101. Restaino, L.,, E. W. Frampton,, W. C. Lionberg, and, R. J. Becker. 2006. A chromogenic plating medium for the isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from foods, food ingredients, and environmental sources. J. Food Prot. 69:315322.
102. Richards, G. M.,, J. B. Gurtler, and, L. R. Beuchat. 2005. Survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant rice cereal reconstituted with water, milk, liquid infant formula, or apple juice. J. Appl. Microbiol. 99:844850.
103. Ries, M.,, D. Harms, and, J. Scharf. 1994. Multiple cerebral infarcts with resulting multicystic encephalomalacia in a premature infant with Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis. Klin. Padiatr. 206:184186.
104. Robertson, L. F.,, G. S. Johannessen,, B. K. Gjerde, and, S. Loncarevic. 2002. Microbiological analysis of seed sprouts in Norway. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 75:119126.
105. Scheepe-Leberkuhne, M., and, F. Wagner. 1986. Optimization and preliminary characterization of an exopolysaccharide synthesized by Enterobacter sakazakii. Biotechnol. Lett. 8:695700.
106. Seo, K. H., and, R. E. Brackett. 2005. Rapid, specific detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula using a real-time PCR assay. J. Food Prot. 68:5963.
107. Simmons, B. P.,, M. S. Gelfand,, M. Haas,, L. Metts, and, J. Ferguson. 1989. Enterobacter sakazakii infections in neonates associated with intrinsic contamination of a powdered infant formula. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 10:398401.
108. Smith, J. L.,, P. M. Fratamico, and, S. J. Novak. 2004. Quorum sensing: a primer for microbiologists. J. Food Prot. 67:10631070.
109. Sogaard, P., and, P. Kjaeldgaard. 1986. Two isolations of enteric group 69 from human clinical specimens. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. Sect. B 94:365367.
110. Sondheimer, J.,, D. Clark, and, E. Gervaise. 1985. Continuous gastric pH measurement in young and older healthy preterm infants receiving formula and clear liquid feedings. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 4:352355.
111. Soriano, J. M.,, H. Rico,, J. C. Molto, and, J. Manes. 2001. Incidence of microbial flora in lettuce meat and Spanish potato omelette from restaurants. Food Microbiol. 18:159163.
112. Stoll, B. J.,, N. Hansen,, A. A. Fanaroff, and, J. A. Lemons. 2004. Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare cause of neonatal septicemia or meningitis in VLBW infants. J. Pediatr. 144:821823.
113. Styrvold, O. B., and, A. R. Strom. 1991. Synthesis, accumulation, and excretion of trehalose in osmotically stressed Escherichia coli K-12 strains: influence of amber suppressors and function of the periplasmic trehalase. J. Bacteriol. 173:11871192.
114. Telang, S.,, C. L. Berseth,, P. W. Ferguson,, J. M. Kinder,, M. Deroin, and, B. W. Petschow. 2005. Fortifying fresh human milk with commercial powdered human milk fortifiers does not affect bacterial growth during 6 hours at room temperature. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 105:15671572.
115. Tift, W. L. 1977. Group B streptococcal infections in the neonate. J. Med. Assoc. Ga. 66:703705.
116. United States Food and Drug Administration (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements). April 11, 2002; revised October 10, 2002. Health professionals letter on Enterobacter sakazakii infections associated with use of powdered (dry) infant formulas in neonatal intensive care units. U.S. FDA, Rockville, Md.
117. United States Food and Drug Administration. 2002. Isolation and enumeration of Enterobacter sakazakii from dehydrated powdered infant formula. [Online.] www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼comm/mmesakaz.html. Accessed 23 October 2005.
118. Urmenyi, A. M. C., and, A. W. Franklin. 1961. Neonatal death from pigmented coliform infection. Lancet i:313315.
119. van Acker, J.,, F. de Smet,, G. Muyldermans,, A. Bougatef,, A. Naessens, and, S. Lauwers. 2001. Outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk formula. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:293297.
120. Van Os, M.,, P. G. Van Wikeselaar, and, S. F. Spoelstra. 1996. Formation of biogenic amines in well fermented grass silages. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge 127:97107.
121. Weir, E. 2002. Powdered infant formula and fatal infection with Enterobacter sakazakii. CMAJ 166:1570.
122. Whitehead, N. A.,, A. M. L. Barnard,, H. Slater,, N. J. L. Simpson, and, G. P. C. Salmond. 2001. Quorum-sensing in gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25:365404.
123. Williams, T. L.,, S. R. Monday,, S. Edelson-Mammel,, R. Buchanan, and, S. M. Musser. 2005. A top-down proteomics approach for differentiating thermal resistant strains of Enterobacter sakazakii. Proteomics 5:41614169.
124. Willis, J., and, J. E. Robinson. 1988. Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis in neonates. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7:196199.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 13.1

Biochemical characterization of

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.2

Biochemical profiles useful for differentiation of and

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.3

Guidelines for reconstituted PIF and human breast milk powder-fortified preparation and handling

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.4

Microbiological criteria to be applied to PIF

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.5

Foods from which has been isolated

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.6

Summary of isolation and enumeration methods for

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.7

Summary of cases and outbreaks in infants reported in the literature

Citation: Pagotto F, Lenati R, Farber J. 2007. , p 271-297. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch13

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error