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Chapter 13 : Enterobacter sakazakii
Category: Applied and Industrial Microbiology; Food Microbiology
This chapter provides a review of the basic biology, ecology, pathogenicity, and epidemiology of Enterobacter sakazakii known as an emerging opportunistic foodborne pathogen. E. sakazakii produces colonies with distinct morphologies. The chapter describes susceptibility of E. sakazakii to physical and chemical treatments. The major food product linked to cases of E. sakazakii infection is powdered infant formula (PIF). The natural habitat of E. sakazakii remains unknown. In recent years, efforts have focused on detecting this organism in a wide variety of environments. E. sakazakii has been isolated from environmental samples such as water, dust, soil, plant materials, mud, and even household vacuum cleaner bags, indicating that its ecological niche is quite diverse. One of the most commonly used methods for isolation of E. sakazakii from PIF was described by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA method was developed for the isolation and enumeration of E. sakazakii from PIF. E. sakazakii has been associated mainly with necrotizing enterocolitis, septicemia, and meningitis. Most of the E. sakazakii infections that have been reported have occurred in developed nations. The chapter focuses on virulence factors and pathogenicity of E. sakazakii. Several studies have described the resistance of Enterobacter isolates to quinolones, ß-lactams, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. E. sakazakii has been reported as being more sensitive than other Enterobacter spp. to some antibiotics including the aminoglycosides, ureidopenicillins, ampicillin, and carboxypenicillins. E. sakazakii has become a growing concern for government regulatory agencies, health care providers, and PIF manufacturers.
Pathogenesis of E. sakazakii.
Biochemical characterization of E. sakazakii a
Biochemical profiles useful for differentiation of E. sakazakii and E. cloacae a
Guidelines for reconstituted PIF and human breast milk powder-fortified preparation and handling
Foods from which Enterobacter sakazakii has been isolated
Summary of isolation and enumeration methods for Enterobacter sakazakii
Summary of E. sakazakii cases and outbreaks in infants reported in the literature