Chapter 14 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap14-2.gif


is an invasive enteric pathogen whose virulence determinants have been the subject of intensive investigation, but not all strains of are equally virulent. Schemes for subtyping species include bacteriophage typing, multienzyme electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and the demonstration of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of chromosomal and plasmid DNA. As the mechanisms by which biotype 1A strains cause disease are largely unknown, a section of this chapter focuses chiefly on the virulence determinants of the classical pathogenic, i.e., pYV-bearing, highly invasive strains of . As with other enterobacteria, can be classified as smooth or rough depending on the amount of O side chain polysaccharide attached to the inner core region of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The major receptor for ferri-yersiniabactin complex is a 65-kDa outer membrane protein named FyuA, which also serves as a receptor for pesticin, a bacteriocin produced by . The effector, Yops, achieve these outcomes mostly by disrupting the proinflammatory signaling pathways that are activated in response to stimulation by invasin, YadA, and LPS. Although much remains to be learned about , investigations into the pathogenesis of yersiniosis to date have provided fascinating new insights into bacterial pathogenesis as a whole and into its genetic control.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 14.1
Figure 14.1

Transmission electron micrograph showing the initial interaction (arrowhead) and transport (arrow) of through an intestinal M cell 60 min after inoculation into mouse ileum. (Reprinted with permission from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.2
Figure 14.2

Light micrograph of a section through the colon of a gnotobiotic piglet 3 days after inoculation with a virulent strain of O:3. Note the microabscess, comprising mostly bacteria, the surrounding inflammatory cells (arrows), and the disrupted epithelium with vacuolated and necrotic cells. An epoxy section stained with methylene blue is shown. (Reprinted with permission from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.3
Figure 14.3

Amino acid sequences of the mature heat-stable enterotoxins produced by ( ), enterotoxigenic (human [STh] and porcine [STp] subtypes) ( ), ( ), and non-O1 ( ) and of the intestinal hormone guanylin ( ). Amino acid residues which are shaded are common to all seven peptides. The first 23 amino acids at the N terminus of the Yst-c mature toxin (denoted by a superscript “a”) are not included in the sequence alignment.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.4
Figure 14.4

Representation of the HPI of O:8 strain WA-C. Arrows indicate the positions of the open reading frames and the direction of transcription. The region that is conserved in and is indicated by a double-headed arrow. (Adapted from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.5
Figure 14.5

Map of the virulence plasmid, pYVe, of serogroup O:9 showing the locations and directions of transcription (arrows) of the genes encoding (i) YadA; (ii) YlpA; (iii) YopB, -D, -E, -H, -M, -N, -O, -P, -Q, and -T and LcrV; (iv) the specific Yop chaperones SycD, -E, -H, and -T; (v) the secretion elements VirA, -B, -C, and -G; and (vi) the regulatory element VirF. (Adapted from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.6
Figure 14.6

Schematic representation of Yop secretion and translocation by . The major structural proteins of the secretory apparatus are shown in relation to their known or deduced locations in the cell wall. The effector Yop chaperone (Syc) and a translocation pore comprising YopB and YopD are also depicted.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.7
Figure 14.7

Antibody response of sheep infected with or to Yops. Yops were prepared from serogroup O:3, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, and incubated with preimmune (lanes 1 and 3) or immune (lanes 2 and 4) sera from lambs with naturally acquired infection with pYV-bearing (lanes 1 and 2) or (lanes 3 and 4). (Reprinted with permission from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abe, J.,, M. Onimaru,, S. Matsumoto,, S. Noma,, K. Baba,, Y. Ito,, T. Kohsaka, and, T. Takeda. 1997. Clinical role for a superantigen in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection. J. Clin. Investig. 99:18231830.
2. Achtman, M.,, K. Zurth,, G. Morelli,, G. Torrea,, A. Guiyoule, and, E. Carniel. 1999. Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1404314048.
3. Ackers, M. L.,, S. Schoenfeld,, J. Markman,, M. G. Smith,, M. A. Nicholson,, W. DeWitt,, D. N. Cameron,, P. M. Griffin, and, L. Slutsker. 2000. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infections associated with pasteurized milk. J. Infect. Dis. 181:18341837.
4. Adams, M. R.,, C. L. Little, and, M. C. Easter. 1991. Modelling the effect of pH, acidulant and temperature on the growth rate of Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 71:6571.
5. Aepfelbacher, M.,, R. Zumbihl,, K. Ruckdeschel,, C. A. Jacobi,, C. Barz, and, J. Heesemann. 1999. The tranquilizing injection of Yersinia proteins: a pathogen’s strategy to resist host defense. Biol. Chem. 380:795802.
6. Ahvonen, P.,, K. Sievers, and, K. Aho. 1969. Arthritis associated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Acta Rheumatol. Scand. 15:232255.
7. Aimoto, S.,, T. Takao,, Y. Shimonishi,, S. Hara,, T. Takeda,, Y. Takeda, and, T. Miwatani. 1982. Amino-acid sequence of a heat-stable enterotoxin produced by human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 129:257263.
8. Andersen, J. K.,, R. Sorensen, and, M. Glensbjerg. 1991. Aspects of the epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica: a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 13:231237.
9. Arduino, M. J.,, L. A. Bland,, M. A. Tipple,, S. M. Aguero,, M. S. Favero, and, W. R. Jarvis. 1989. Growth and endotoxin production of Yersinia enterocolitica and Enterobacter agglomerans in packed erythrocytes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:14831485.
10. Autenrieth, I. B.,, R. Reissbrodt,, E. Saken,, R. Berner,, U. Vogel,, W. Rabsch, and, J. Heesemann. 1994. Desferrioxamine-promoted virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica in mice depends on both desferrioxamine type and mouse strain. J. Infect. Dis. 169:562567.
11. Badger, J. L., and, V. L. Miller. 1998. Expression of invasin and motility are coordinately regulated in Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 180:793800.
12. Baumler, A.,, R. Koebnik,, I. Stojiljkovic,, J. Heesemann,, V. Braun, and, K. Hantke. 1993. Survey on newly characterized iron uptake systems of Yersinia enterocolitica. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. Virol. Parasitol. Infect. Dis. 278:416424.
13. Baumler, A. J., and, K. Hantke. 1992. Ferrioxamine uptake in Yersinia enterocolitica: characterization of the receptor protein FoxA. Mol. Microbiol. 6:13091321.
14. Bengoechea, J. A.,, H. Najdenski, and, M. Skurnik. 2004. Lipopolysaccharide O antigen status of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 is essential for virulence and absence of O antigen affects the expression of other Yersinia virulence factors. Mol. Microbiol. 52:451469.
15. Bercovier, H., and, H. H. Mollaret. 1984. Genus XIV. Yersinia Van Loghem 1944, 15AL, p. 498506. In N. R. Krieg and, J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
16. Bhaduri, S.,, B. Cottrell, and, A. R. Pickard. 1997. Use of a single procedure for selective enrichment, isolation, and identification of plasmid-bearing virulent Yersinia enterocolitica of various serotypes from pork samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:16571660.
17. Biedzka-Sarek, M.,, R. Venho, and, M. Skurnik. 2005. Role of YadA, Ail, and lipopolysaccharide in serum resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. Infect. Immun. 73:22322244.
18. Black, R. E.,, R. J. Jackson,, T. Tsai,, M. Medvesky,, M. Shayegani,, J. C. Feeley,, K. I. E. MacLeod, and, A. M. Wakelee. 1978. Epidemic Yersinia enterocolitica infection due to contaminated chocolate milk. N. Engl. J. Med. 298:7679.
19. Bliska, J. B., and, S. Falkow. 1994. Interplay between determinants of cellular entry and cellular disruption in the enteropathogenic Yersinia. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 7:323328.
20. Borg, A. A.,, J. Gray, and, P. T. Dawes. 1992. Yersinia-related arthritis in the United Kingdom. A report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Q. J. Med. 84:575582.
21. Bottone, E. J. 1977. Yersinia enterocolitica: a panoramic view of a charismatic microorganism. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 5:211241.
22. Bottone, E. J. 1997. Yersinia enterocolitica: the charisma continues. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:257276.
23. Bowe, F.,, P. O’Gaora,, D. Maskell,, M. Cafferkey, and, G. Dougan. 1989. Virulence, persistence, and immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 aroA mutants. Infect. Immun. 57:32343236.
24. Boyd, A. P.,, M. P. Sory,, M. Iriarte, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1998. Heparin interferes with translocation of Yop proteins into HeLa cells and binds to LcrG, a regulatory component of the Yersinia Yop apparatus. Mol. Microbiol. 27:425436.
25. Brecher, M. E., and, S. N. Hay. 2005. Bacterial contamination of blood components. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:195204.
26. Brem, D.,, C. Pelludat,, A. Rakin,, C. A. Jacobi, and, J. Heesemann. 2001. Functional analysis of yersiniabactin transport genes of Yersinia enterocolitica. Microbiology 147:11151127.
27. Brett, S. J.,, A. V. Mazurov,, I. G. Charles, and, J. P. Tite. 1993. The invasin protein of Yersinia spp. provides costimulatory activity to human T cells through interaction with beta 1 integrins. Eur. J. Immunol. 23:16081614.
28. Brubaker, R. R. 1991. Factors promoting acute and chronic diseases caused by yersiniae. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4:309324.
29. Butler, R. C.,, V. Lund, and, D. A. Carlson. 1987. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:375378.
30. Carniel, E. 2001. The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island: an iron-uptake island. Microbes Infect. 3:561569.
31. Carniel, E.,, I. Autenrieth,, G. Cornelis,, H. Fukushima,, F. Guinet,, R. Isberg,, J. Pham,, M. Prentice,, M. Simonet,, M. Skurnik, and, G. Wauters. 22 November 2002, posting date. Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. In M. Dworkin,, S. Falkow,, E. Rosenberg,, K.-H. Schleifer, and, E. Stackebrandt (ed.), The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community, 3rd ed., release 3.11. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y. [Online.]
32. Carnoy, C.,, H. Müeller-Alouf,, S. Haentjens, and, M. Simonet. 1998. Polymorphism of ypm, Yersinia pseudo-tuberculosis superantigen encoding gene. Zentrbl. Bakteriol. 29(Suppl.): 397398.
33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis among infants exposed to chitterlings—Chicago, Illinois, 2002. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:956958.
34. Chao, W. L.,, R. J. Ding, and, R. S. Chen. 1988. Survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in the environment. Can. J. Microbiol. 34:753756.
35. China, B.,, B. T. N’Guyen,, M. de Bruyere, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1994. Role of YadA in resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infect. Immun. 62:12751281.
36. China, B.,, M. P. Sory,, B. T. N’Guyen,, M. de Bruyere, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1993. Role of the YadA protein in prevention of opsonization of Yersinia enterocolitica by C3b molecules. Infect. Immun. 61:31293136.
37. Clark, M. A.,, B. H. Hirst, and, M. A. Jepson. 1998. M-cell surface beta1 integrin expression and invasin-mediated targeting of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to mouse Peyer’s patch M cells. Infect. Immun. 66:12371243.
38. Colmegna, I., and, L. R. Espinoza. 2005. Recent advances in reactive arthritis. Curr. Rheumatol. Rep. 7:201207.
39. Cornelis, G.,, Y. Laroche,, G. Balligand,, M. P. Sory, and, G. Wauters. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica, a primary model for bacterial invasiveness. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:6487.
40. Cornelis, G.,, C. Sluiters,, C. L. de Rouvroit, and, T. Michiels. 1989. Homology between virF, the transcriptional activator of the Yersinia virulence regulon, and AraC, the Escherichia coli arabinose operon regulator. J. Bacteriol. 171:254262.
41. Cornelis, G. R. 2002. The Yersinia Ysc-Yop ‘type III’ weaponry. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3:742752.
42. Cornelis, G. R. 2002. Yersinia type III secretion: send in the effectors. J. Cell Biol. 158:401408.
43. Cornelis, G. R.,, T. Biot,, C. Lambert de Rouvroit,, T. Michiels,, B. Mulder,, C. Sluiters,, M. P. Sory,, M. Van Bouchaute, and, J. C. Vanooteghem. 1989. The Yersinia yop regulon. Mol. Microbiol. 3:14551459.
44. Cornelis, G. R.,, A. Boland,, A. P. Boyd,, C. Geuijen,, M. Iriarte,, C. Neyt,, M.-P. Sory, and, I. Stainier. 1998. The virulence plasmid of Yersinia, an antihost genome. Microbiol.Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:13151352.
45. Cornelis, G. R.,, C. Sluiters,, I. Delor,, D. Geib,, K. Kaniga,, C. Lambert de Rouvroit,, M. P. Sory,, J. C. Vanooteghem, and, T. Michiels. 1991. ymoA, a Yersinia enterocolitica chromosomal gene modulating the expression of virulence functions. Mol. Microbiol. 5:10231034.
46. Cotter, S. E.,, N. K. Surana, and, J. W. St. Geme III. 2005. Trimeric autotransporters: a distinct subfamily of auto-transporter proteins. Trends Microbiol. 13:199205.
47. Cover, T. L., and, R. C. Aber. 1989. Yersinia enterocolitica. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:1624.
48. Cowan, C.,, A. V. Philipovskiy,, C. R. Wulff-Strobel,, Z. Ye, and, S. C. Straley. 2005. Anti-LcrV antibody inhibits delivery of Yops by Yersinia pestis KIM5 by directly promoting phagocytosis. Infect. Immun. 73:61276137.
49. Reference deleted.
50. Currie, M. G.,, K. F. Fok,, J. Kato,, R. J. Moore,, F. K. Hamra,, K. L. Duffin, and, C. E. Smith. 1992. Guanylin: an endogenous activator of intestinal guanylate cyclase. Proc. Natl.Acad. Sci. USA 89:947951.
51. D’Aoust, J. Y.,, C. E. Park,, R. A. Szabo,, E. C. Todd,, D. B. Emmons, and, R. C. McKellar. 1988. Thermal inactivation of Campylobacter species, Yersinia enterocolitica, and hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fluid milk. J. Dairy Sci. 71:32303236.
52. de Giusti, M., and, E. de Vito. 1992. Inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica by nitrite and nitrate in food. Food Addit. Contam. 9:405408.
53. de Koning, J.,, J. Heesemann,, J. A. Hoogkamp-Korstanje,, J. J. Festen,, P. M. Houtman, and, P. L. van Oijen. 1989. Yersinia in intestinal biopsy specimens from patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathy: correlation with specific serum IgA antibodies. J. Infect. Dis. 159:109112.
54. de Koning-Ward, T. F.,, T. Grant,, F. Oppedisano, and, R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Effect of bacterial invasion of macrophages on the outcome of assays to assess bacterium-macrophage interactions. J. Immunol. Methods 215:3944.
55. de Koning-Ward, T. F., and, R. M. Robins-Browne. 1995. Contribution of urease to acid tolerance in Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 63:37903795.
56. Delor, I., and, G. R. Cornelis. 1992. Role of Yersinia enterocolitica Yst toxin in experimental infection of young rabbits. Infect. Immun. 60:42694277.
57. Delor, I.,, A. Kaeckenbeeck,, G. Wauters, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of yst, the Yersinia enterocolitica gene encoding the heat-stable enterotoxin, and prevalence of the gene among pathogenic and nonpathogenic yersiniae. Infect. Immun. 58:29832988.
58. Dion, P.,, R. Charbonneau, and, C. Thibault. 1994. Effect of ionizing dose rate on the radioresistance of some food pathogenic bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 40:369374.
59. Doyle, M. P. 1990. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Lancet 336:11111115.
60. Escudero, M. E.,, L. Velazquez,, M. S. Di Genaro, and, A. M. de Guzman. 1999. Effectiveness of various disinfectants in the elimination of Yersinia enterocolitica on fresh lettuce. J. Food Prot. 62:665669.
61. Falgarone, G.,, H. S. Blanchard,, B. Riot,, M. Simonet, and, M. Breban. 1999. Cytotoxic T-cell-mediated response against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in HLA-B27 transgenic rat. Infect. Immun. 67:37733779.
62. Farmer, J. J., III,, G. P. Carter,, V. L. Miller,, S. Falkow, and, I. K. Wachsmuth. 1992. Pyrazinamidase, CR-MOX agar, salicin fermentation-esculin hydrolysis, and D-xylose fermentation for identifying pathogenic serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:25892594.
63. Feng, P., and, S. D. Weagant. 1993. Yersinia, p. 427460. In Y. H. Hui,, J. R. Gorham,, K. D. Murrell, and, D. O. Cliver (ed.), Foodborne Disease Handbook, vol. 1. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
64. Ferracci, F.,, F. D. Schubot,, D. S. Waugh, and, G. V. Plano. 2005. Selection and characterization of Yersinia pestis YopN mutants that constitutively block Yop secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 57:970987.
65. Finlay, B. B., and, S. Falkow. 1988. Comparison of the invasion strategies used by Salmonella choleraesuis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia enterocolitica to enter cultured animal cells: endosome acidification is not required for bacterial invasion or intracellular replication. Biochimie 70:10891099.
66. Foberg, U.,, A. Fryden,, E. Kihlstrom,, K. Persson, and, O. Weiland. 1986. Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia: clinical and microbiological aspects. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 18:269279.
67. Forsberg, A.,, R. Rosqvist, and, H. Wolf-Watz. 1994. Regulation and polarized transfer of the Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) involved in antiphagocytosis. Trends Microbiol. 2:1419.
68. Forsberg, A.,, A. M. Viitanen,, M. Skurnik, and, H. Wolf-Watz. 1991. The surface-located YopN protein is involved in calcium signal transduction in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 5:977986.
69. Francis, M. S., and, H. Wolf-Watz. 1998. YopD of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is translocated into the cytosol of HeLa epithelial cells: evidence of a structural domain necessary for translocation. Mol. Microbiol. 29:799813.
70. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, M. Bucher,, C. Hank,, A. Stolle, and, H. Korkeala. 2001. High prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica 4:O3 on pig offal in southern Germany: a slaughtering technique problem. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24:457463.
71. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M., and, H. Korkeala. 2003. Low occurrence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in clinical, food, and environmental samples: a methodological problem. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16:220229.
72. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, T. Korte, and, H. Korkeala. 2000. Contamination of carcasses, offals, and the environment with yadA-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in a pig slaughterhouse. J. Food Prot. 63:3135.
73. Gaastra, W., and, A. M. Svennerholm. 1996. Colonization factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Trends Microbiol. 4:444452.
74. Gaston, J. S.,, C. Cox, and, K. Granfors. 1999. Clinical and experimental evidence for persistent Yersinia infection in reactive arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 42:22392242.
75. Ghosh, P. 2004. Process of protein transport by the type III secretion system. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:771795.
76. Goure, J.,, P. Broz,, O. Attree,, G. R. Cornelis, and, I. Attree. 2005. Protective anti-V antibodies inhibit Pseudomonas and Yersinia translocon assembly within host membranes. J. Infect. Dis. 192:218225.
77. Granfors, K.,, S. Jalkanen,, R. von Essen,, R. Lahesmaa-Rantala,, O. Isomaki,, K. Pekkola-Heino,, R. Merilahti-Palo,, R. Saario,, H. Isomaki, and, A. Toivanen. 1989. Yersinia antigens in synovial-fluid cells from patients with reactive arthritis. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:216221.
78. Grant, T.,, V. Bennett-Wood, and, R. M. Robins-Browne. 1999. Characterization of the interaction between Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A and phagocytes and epithelial cells in vitro. Infect. Immun. 67:43674375.
79. Grant, T.,, V. Bennett-Wood, and, R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Identification of virulence-associated characteristics in clinical isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica lacking classical virulence markers. Infect. Immun. 66:11131120.
80. Gripenberg-Lerche, C.,, M. Skurnik,, L. Zhang,, K.-O. Söderström, and, P. Toivanen. 1994. Role of YadA in arthritogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:8: experimental studies with rats. Infect. Immun. 62:55685575.
81. Gripenberg-Lerche, C.,, L. Zhang,, P. Ahtonen,, P. Toivanen, and, M. Skurnik. 2000. Construction of urease-negative mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes O:3 and O:8: role of urease in virulence and arthritogenicity. Infect. Immun. 68:942947.
82. Grosdent, N.,, I. Maridonneau-Parini,, M. P. Sory, and, G. R. Cornelis. 2002. Role of Yops and adhesins in resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica to phagocytosis. Infect. Immun. 70:41654176.
83. Grützkau, A.,, C. Hanski,, H. Hahn, and, E. O. Riecken. 1990. Involvement of M cells in the bacterial invasion of Peyer’s patches: a common mechanism shared by Yersinia enterocolitica and other enteroinvasive bacteria. Gut 31:10111015.
84. Guarino, A.,, R. Giannella, and, M. R. Thompson. 1989. Citrobacter freundii produces an 18-amino-acid heat-stable enterotoxin identical to the 18-amino-acid Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STIa). Infect. Immun. 57:649652.
85. Gurtler, M.,, T. Alter,, S. Kasimir,, M. Linnebur, and, K. Fehlhaber. 2005. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in fattening pigs. J. Food Prot. 68:850854.
86. Håkansson, S.,, T. Bergman,, J. C. Vanooteghem,, G. Cornelis, and, H. Wolf-Watz. 1993. YopB and YopD constitute a novel class of Yersinia Yop proteins. Infect. Immun. 61:7180.
87. Hamburger, Z. A.,, M. S. Brown,, R. R. Isberg, and, P. J. Bjorkman. 1999. Crystal structure of invasin: a bacterial integrin-binding protein. Science 286:291295.
88. Han, Y. W., and, V. L. Miller. 1997. Reevaluation of the virulence phenotype of the inv yadA double mutants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 65:327330.
89. Hanna, M. O.,, J. C. Stewart,, D. L. Zink,, Z. L. Carpenter, and, C. Vanderzant. 1977. Development of Yersinia enterocolitica on raw and cooked beef and pork at different temperatures. J. Food Sci. 42:11801184.
90. Hanski, C.,, U. Kutschka,, H. P. Schmoranzer,, M. Naumann,, A. Stallmach,, H. Hahn,, H. Menge, and, E. O. Riecken. 1989. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of interaction of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O8 with intestinal mucosa during experimental enteritis. Infect. Immun. 57:673678.
91. Harakeh, M. S.,, J. D. Berg,, J. C. Hoff, and, A. Matin. 1985. Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:6972.
92. Hartland, E. L., and, R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Infections with enteropathogenic Yersinia species: paradigms of bacterial pathogenesis. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 9:191205.
93. Hayashidani, H.,, Y. Ohtomo,, Y. Toyokawa,, M. Saito,, K. Kaneko,, J. Kosuge,, M. Kato,, M. Ogawa, and, G. Kapperud. 1995. Potential sources of sporadic human infection with Yersinia enterocolitica serovar O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:12531257.
94. Heesemann, J.,, K. Gaede, and, I. B. Autenrieth. 1993. Experimental Yersinia enterocolitica infection in rodents: a model for human yersiniosis. APMIS 101:417429.
95. Heesemann, J.,, K. Hantke,, T. Vocke,, E. Saken,, A. Rakin,, I. Stojiljkovic, and, R. Berner. 1993. Virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica is closely associated with siderophore production, expression of an iron-repressible outer membrane polypeptide of 65,000 Da and pesticin sensitivity. Mol. Microbiol. 8:397408.
96. Henderson, I. R.,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, M. Desvaux,, R. C. Fernandez, and, D. a’Aldeen. 2004. Type V protein secretion pathway: the autotransporter story. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:692744.
97. Hermann, E. 1993. T cells in reactive arthritis. APMIS 101:177186.
98. Hermann, E.,, D. T. Yu,, K. H. Meyer zum Buschenfelde, and, B. Fleischer. 1993. HLA-B27-restricted CD8 T cells derived from synovial fluids of patients with reactive arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Lancet 342:646650.
99. Herrlinger, J. D., and, J. U. Asmussen. 1992. Long term prognosis in yersinia arthritis: clinical and serological findings. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51:13321334.
100. Hoiczyk, E., and, G. Blobel. 2001. Polymerization of a single protein of the pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica into needles punctures eukaryotic cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:46694674.
101. Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J. A. A., and, V. M. M. Stolk-Engelaar. 1995. Yersinia enterocolitica infection in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14:771775.
102. Huang, X.,, K. Yoshino,, H. Nakao, and, T. Takeda. 1997. Nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding the novel Yersinia enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin that includes a proregion-like sequence in its mature toxin molecule. Microb. Pathog. 22:8997.
103. Iriarte, M., and, G. R. Cornelis. 1999. Identification of SycN, YscX, and YscY, three new elements of the Yersinia yop virulon. J. Bacteriol. 181:675680.
104. Iriarte, M.,, I. Stainier, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1995. The rpoS gene from Yersinia enterocolitica and its influence on expression of virulence factors. Infect. Immun. 63:18401847.
105. Iriarte, M.,, I. Stainier,, A. V. Mikulskis, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1995. The fliA gene encoding σ28 in Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 177:22992304.
106. Iriarte, M.,, J. C. Vanooteghem,, I. Delor,, R. Diaz,, S. Knutton, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1993. The Myf fibrillae of Yersinia enterocolitica. Mol. Microbiol. 9:507520.
107. Isberg, R. R. 1990. Pathways for the penetration of enteroinvasive Yersinia into mammalian cells. Mol. Biol. Med. 7:7382.
108. Isberg, R. R., and, P. Barnes. 2001. Subversion of integrins by enteropathogenic Yersinia. J. Cell Sci. 114:2128.
109. Isberg, R. R., and, S. Falkow. 1985. A single genetic locus encoded by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis permits invasion of cultured animal cells by Escherichia coli K-12. Nature 317:262264.
110. Isberg, R. R., and, G. T. Van Nhieu. 1994. Two mammalian cell internalization strategies used by pathogenic bacteria. Annu. Rev. Genet. 28:395422.
111. Iteman, I.,, A. Guiyoule, and, E. Carniel. 1996. Comparison of three molecular methods for typing and subtyping pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. J. Med. Microbiol. 45:4856.
112. Iwobi, A.,, J. Heesemann,, E. Garcia,, E. Igwe,, C. Noelting, and, A. Rakin. 2003. Novel virulence-associated type II secretion system unique to high-pathogenicity Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 71:18721879.
113. Jackson, M. W., and, G. V. Plano. 2000. Interactions between type III secretion apparatus components from Yersinia pestis detected using the yeast two-hybrid system. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 186:8590.
114. Jacobi, C. A.,, A. Roggenkamp,, A. Rakin,, R. Zumbihl,, L. Leitritz, and, J. Heesemann. 1998. In vitro and in vivo expression studies of yopE from Yersinia enterocolitica using the gfp reporter gene. Mol. Microbiol. 30:865882.
115. Jepson, M. A., and, M. A. Clark. 1998. Studying M cells and their role in infection. Trends Microbiol. 9:359365.
116. Jones, T. F. 2003. From pig to pacifier: chitterling-associated yersiniosis outbreak among black infants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:10071009.
117. Kapperud, G. 1991. Yersinia enterocolitica in food hygiene. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 12:5365.
118. Kapperud, G. 1982. Enterotoxin production at 4°, 22°, and 37° among Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like bacteria. APMIS 90B:185189.
119. Kasatiya, S. S. 1976. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis outbreak—Montreal. Can. Dis. Wkly. Rep. 2:7374.
120. Keet, E. E. 1974. Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia: source of infection and incubation period identified. N. Y. State J. Med. 74:22262229.
121. Kerschen, E. J.,, D. A. Cohen,, A. M. Kaplan, and, S. C. Straley. 2004. The plague virulence protein YopM targets the innate immune response by causing a global depletion of NK cells. Infect. Immun. 72:45894602.
122. King, C. H.,, E. B. Shotts, Jr.,, R. E. Wooley, and, K. G. Porter. 1988. Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:30233033.
123. Koster, M.,, W. Bitter,, H. de Cock,, A. Allaoui,, G. R. Cornelis, and, J. Tommassen. 1997. The outer membrane component, YscC, of the Yop secretion machinery of Yersinia enterocolitica forms a ring-shaped multimeric complex. Mol. Microbiol. 26:789797.
124. Kotetishvili, M.,, A. Kreger,, G. Wauters,, J. G. Morris, Jr.,, A. Sulakvelidze, and, O. C. Stine. 2005. Multilocus sequence typing for studying genetic relationships among Yersinia species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:26742684.
125. Kraehenbuhl, J. P., and, M. R. Neutra. 2000. Epithelial M cells: differentiation and function. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 16:301332.
126. Lahesmaa, R.,, M. Skurnik,, K. Granfors,, T. Mottonen,, R. Saario,, A. Toivanen, and, P. Toivanen. 1992. Molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathies. A critical appraisal of cross-reactivity between microbial antigens and HLA-B27. Br. J. Rheumatol. 31:221229.
127. Larsen, J. H. 1980. Yersinia enterocolitica infection and rheumatic diseases. Scand. J. Rheumatol. 9:129137.
128. Leclercq, A.,, L. Martin,, M. L. Vergnes,, N. Ounnoughene,, J. F. Laran,, P. Giraud, and, E. Carniel. 2005. Fatal Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 serovar O:3 sepsis after red blood cell transfusion. Transfusion 45:814818.
129. Lee, L. A.,, A. R. Gerber,, D. R. Lonsway,, J. D. Smith,, G. P. Carter,, N. D. Puhr,, C. M. Parrish,, R. K. Sikes,, R. J. Finton, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1990. Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 infections in infants and children, associated with the household preparation of chitterlings. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:984987.
130. Lee, V. T.,, D. M. Anderson, and, O. Schneewind. 1998. Targeting of Yersinia Yop proteins into the cytosol of HeLa cells: one-step translocation of YopE across bacterial and eukaryotic membranes is dependent on SycE chaperone. Mol. Microbiol. 28:593601.
131. Lee, V. T.,, C. Tam, and, O. Schneewind. 2000. LcrV, a substrate for Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion, is required for toxin targeting into the cytosol of HeLa cells. J. Biol. Chem. 275:3686936875.
132. Leirisalo-Repo, M. 1987. Yersinia arthritis. Acute clinical picture and long-term prognosis. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:145154.
133. Leung, K. Y., and, S. C. Straley. 1989. The yopM gene of Yersinia pestis encodes a released protein having homology with the human platelet surface protein GPIb alpha. J. Bacteriol. 171:46234632.
134. Lian, C. J.,, W. S. Hwang,, J. K. Kelly, and, C. H. Pai. 1987. Invasiveness of Yersinia enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid: an in-vivo study. J. Med. Microbiol. 24:219226.
135. Lindler, L. E., and, B. D. Tall. 1993. Yersinia pestis pH 6 antigen forms fimbriae and is induced by intracellular association with macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 8:311324.
136. Lo, W. F.,, A. S. Woods,, A. DeCloux,, R. J. Cotter,, E. S. Metcalf, and, M. J. Soloski. 2000. Molecular mimicry mediated by MHC class Ib molecules after infection with gram-negative pathogens. Nat. Med. 6:215218.
137. Marjai, E.,, M. Kalman,, I. Kajary,, A. Belteky, and, M. Rodler. 1987. Isolation from food and characterization by virulence tests of Yersinia enterocolitica associated with an outbreak. Acta Microbiol. Hung. 34:97109.
138. Marks, M. I.,, C. H. Pai,, L. Lafleur,, L. Lackman, and, O. Hammerberg. 1980. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis: a prospective study of clinical, bacteriologic, and epidemiologic features. J. Pediatr. 96:2631.
139. Marra, A., and, R. R. Isberg. 1997. Invasin-dependent and invasin-independent pathways for translocation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis across the Peyer’s patch intestinal epithelium. Infect. Immun. 65:34123421.
140. Maruyama, T. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica infection in humans and isolation of the microorganism from pigs in Japan. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:4855.
141. McDonald, C.,, P. O. Vacratsis,, J. B. Bliska, and, J. E. Dixon. 2003. The Yersinia virulence factor YopM forms a novel protein complex with two cellular kinases. J. Biol. Chem. 278:1851418523.
142. Michiels, T.,, P. Wattiau,, R. Brasseur,, J. M. Ruysschaert, and, G. Cornelis. 1990. Secretion of Yop proteins by yersiniae. Infect. Immun. 58:28402849.
143. Mikulskis, A. V.,, I. Delor,, V. H. Thi, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1994. Regulation of the Yersinia enterocolitica enterotoxin Yst gene. Influence of growth phase, temperature, osmolarity, pH and bacterial host factors. Mol. Microbiol. 14:905915.
144. Miller, V. L. 1992. Yersinia invasion genes and their products. ASM News 58:2633.
145. Miller, V. L.,, K. B. Beer,, G. Heusipp,, B. M. Young, and, M. R. Wachtel. 2001. Identification of regions of Ail required for the invasion and serum resistance pheno-types. Mol. Microbiol. 41:10531062.
146. Miller, V. L., and, S. Falkow. 1988. Evidence for two genetic loci in Yersinia enterocolitica that can promote invasion of epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 56:12421248.
147. Miller, V. L.,, B. B. Finlay, and, S. Falkow. 1988. Factors essential for the penetration of mammalian cells by Yersinia. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 138:1539.
148. Miyoshi-Akiyama, T.,, W. Fujimaki,, X. J. Yan,, J. Yagi,, K. Imanishi,, H. Kato,, K. Tomonari, and, T. Uchiyama. 1997. Identification of murine T cells reactive with the bacterial superantigen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM) and factors involved in YPM-induced toxicity in mice. Microbiol. Immunol. 41:345352.
149. Mollaret, H. H.,, H. Bercovier, and, J. M. Alonso. 1979. Summary of the data received at the WHO Reference Centre for Yersinia enterocolitica. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 5:174184.
150. Morse, D. L.,, M. Shayegani, and, R. J. Gallo. 1984. Epidemiologic investigation of a Yersinia camp outbreak linked to a food handler. Am. J. Public Health 74:589592.
151. Neilands, J. B. 1981. Microbial iron compounds. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50:715731.
152. Nesbakken, T.,, G. Kapperud,, K. Dommarsnes,, M. Skurnik, and, E. Hornes. 1991. Comparative study of a DNA hybridization method and two isolation procedures for detection of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 in naturally contaminated pork products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:389394.
153. Neyt, C., and, G. R. Cornelis. 1999. Insertion of a Yop translocation pore into the macrophage plasma membrane by Yersinia enterocolitica: requirement for translocators YopB and YopD, but not LcrG. Mol. Microbiol. 33:971981.
154. Neyt, C.,, M. Iriarte,, V. H. Thi, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1997. Virulence and arsenic resistance in yersiniae. J. Bacteriol. 179:612619.
155. Nilehn, B. 1969. Studies on Yersinia enterocolitica with special reference to bacterial diagnosis and occurrence in human acute enteric disease. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 206(Suppl.): 148.
156. Orth, K. 2002. Function of the Yersinia effector YopJ. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 5:3843.
157. Ostroff, S. M.,, G. Kapperud,, L. C. Hutwagner,, T. Nesbakken,, N. H. Bean,, J. Lassen, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1994. Sources of sporadic Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Norway: a prospective case-control study. Epidemiol. Infect. 112:133141.
158. Pai, C. H., and, L. De Stephano. 1982. Serum resistance associated with virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 35:605611.
159. Pai, C. H.,, V. Mors, and, S. Toma. 1978. Prevalence of enterotoxigenicity in human and nonhuman isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 22:334338.
160. Peixotto, S. S.,, G. Finne,, M. O. Hanna, and, C. Vanderzant. 1979. Presence, growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in oyster, shrimp and crab. J. Food Prot. 42:974981.
161. Pepe, J. C.,, J. L. Badger, and, V. L. Miller. 1994. Growth phase and low pH affect the thermal regulation of the Yersinia enterocolitica inv gene. Mol. Microbiol. 11:123135.
162. Pepe, J. C., and, V. L. Miller. 1993. Yersinia enterocolitica invasin: a primary role in the initiation of infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:64736477.
163. Pepe, J. C.,, M. R. Wachtel,, E. Wagar, and, V. L. Miller. 1995. Pathogenesis of defined invasion mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica in a BALB/c mouse model of infection. Infect. Immun. 63:48374848.
164. Perry, R. D. 1993. Acquisition and storage of inorganic iron and hemin by the yersiniae. Trends Microbiol. 1:142147.
165. Perry, R. D., and, J. D. Fetherston. 1997. Yersinia pestis: etiologic agent of plague. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:3566.
166. Persson, C.,, N. Carballeira,, H. Wolf-Watz, and, M. Fallman. 1997. The PTPase YopH inhibits uptake of Yersinia, tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas and FAK, and the associated accumulation of these proteins in peripheral focal adhesions. EMBO J. 16:23072318.
167. Pujol, C., and, J. B. Bliska. 2005. Turning Yersinia pathogenesis outside in: subversion of macrophage function by intracellular yersiniae. Clin. Immunol. 114:216226.
168. Puylaert, J. B.,, R. J. Vermeijden,, S. D. van der Werf,, L. Doornbos, and, R. K. Koumans. 1989. Incidence and sonographic diagnosis of bacterial ileocaecitis masquerading as appendicitis. Lancet ii:8486.
169. Rakin, A.,, C. Noelting,, S. Schubert, and, J. Heesemann. 1999. Common and specific characteristics of the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 67:52655274.
170. Ramamurthi, K. S., and, O. Schneewind. 2003. Substrate recognition by the Yersinia type III protein secretion machinery. Mol. Microbiol. 50:10951102.
171. Ramamurthy, T.,, K. Yoshino,, X. Huang,, G. B. Nair,, E. Carniel,, T. Maruyama,, H. Fukushima, and, T. Takeda. 1997. The novel heat-stable enterotoxin subtype gene (ystB) of Yersinia enterocolitica: nucleotide sequence and distribution of the yst genes. Microb. Pathog. 23:189200.
172. Reed, R. P.,, R. M. Robins-Browne, and, M. L. Williams. 1997. Yersinia enterocolitica peritonitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:14681469.
173. Reveille, J. D., and, F. C. Arnett. 2005. Spondyloarthritis: update on pathogenesis and management. Am. J. Med. 118:592603.
174. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, A. M. Bordun, and, K. J. Slee. 1993. Serological response of sheep to plasmid-encoded proteins of Yersinia species following natural infection with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. J. Med. Microbiol. 39:268272.
175. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, M. D. Miliotis,, S. Cianciosi,, V. L. Miller,, S. Falkow, and, J. G. Morris, Jr. 1989. Evaluation of DNA colony hybridization and other techniques for detection of virulence in Yersinia species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:644650.
176. Robins-Browne, R. M., and, J. K. Prpic. 1985. Effects of iron and desferrioxamine on infections with Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 47:774779.
177. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, J. K. Prpic, and, S. J. Stuart. 1987. Yersiniae and iron. A study in host-parasite relationships. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:254258.
178. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, A. R. Rabson, and, H. J. Koornhof. 1979. Generalised infection with Yersinia enterocolitica and the role of iron. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 5:277282.
179. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, C. S. Still,, M. D. Miliotis, and, H. J. Koornhof. 1979. Mechanism of action of Yersinia enterocolitica enterotoxin. Infect. Immun. 25:680684.
180. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, T. Takeda,, A. Fasano,, A. M. Bordun,, S. Dohi,, H. Kasuga,, G. Fang,, V. Prado,, R. L. Guerrant, et al. 1993. Assessment of enterotoxin production by Yersinia enterocolitica and identification of a novel heat-stable enterotoxin produced by a noninvasive Y. enterocolitica strain isolated from clinical material. Infect. Immun. 61:764767.
181. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, S. Tzipori,, G. Gonis,, J. Hayes,, M. Withers, and, J. K. Prpic. 1985. The pathogenesis of Yersinia enterocolitica infection in gnotobiotic piglets. J. Med. Microbiol. 19:297308.
182. Roggenkamp, A.,, H.-R. Neuberger,, A. Flugel,, T. Schmoll, and, J. Heesemann. 1995. Substitution of two histidine residues in YadA protein of Yersinia enterocolitica abrogates collagen binding, cell adherence and mouse virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 16:12071219.
183. Rohde, J. R.,, J. M. Fox, and, S. A. Minnich. 1994. Thermoregulation in Yersinia enterocolitica is coincident with changes in DNA supercoiling. Mol. Microbiol. 12:187199.
184. Rosenshine, I.,, V. Duronio, and, B. B. Finlay. 1992. Tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors block invasin-promoted bacterial uptake by epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 60:22112217.
185. Sachdeva, P., and, J. S. Virdi. 2004. Repetitive elements sequence (REP/ERIC)-PCR based genotyping of clinical and environmental strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A reveal existence of limited number of clonal groups. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 240:193201.
186. Saebo, A., and, J. Lassen. 1992. Acute and chronic gastrointestinal manifestations associated with Yersinia enterocolitica infection. A Norwegian 10-year follow-up study on 458 hospitalized patients. Ann. Surg. 215:250255.
187. Saltman, L. H.,, Y. Lu,, E. M. Zaharias, and, R. R. Isberg. 1996. A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein that contributes to high affinity binding to integrin receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 271:2343823444.
188. Sansonetti, P. J., and, A. Phalipon. 1999. M cells as ports of entry for enteroinvasive pathogens: mechanisms of interaction, consequences for the disease process. Semin. Immunol. 11:193203.
189. Schiemann, D. A. 1980. Yersinia enterocolitica: observations on some growth characteristics and response to selective agents. Can. J. Microbiol. 26:12321240.
190. Schiemann, D. A. 1981. An enterotoxin-negative strain of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 is capable of producing diarrhea in mice. Infect. Immun. 32:571574.
191. Schiemann, D. A. 1988. Examination of enterotoxin production at low temperatures by Yersinia spp. in culture media and foods. J. Food Prot. 51:571573.
192. Schiemann, D. A. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica in milk and dairy products. J. Dairy Sci. 70:383391.
193. Schiemann, D. A. 1989. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, p. 601672. In M. P. Doyle (ed.), Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
194. Schmid, Y.,, G. A. Grassl,, O. T. Buhler,, M. Skurnik,, I. B. Autenrieth, and, E. Bohn. 2004. Yersinia enterocolitica adhesin A induces production of interleukin-8 in epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 72:67806789.
195. Schmiel, D. H.,, E. Wagar,, L. Karamanou,, D. Weeks, and, V. L. Miller. 1998. Phospholipase A of Yersinia enterocolitica contributes to pathogenesis in a mouse model. Infect. Immun. 66:39413951.
196. Shayegani, M.,, D. Morse,, I. DeForge,, T. Root,, L. M. Parsons, and, P. S. Maupin. 1983. Microbiology of a major foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:8. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17:3540.
197. Shenkman, L., and, E. J. Bottone. 1976. Antibodies to Yersinia enterocolitica in thyroid disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 85:735739.
198. Simonet, M. L. 1999. Enterobacteria in reactive arthritis: Yersinia, Shigella, and Salmonella. Rev. Rhum. Engl. Ed. 66:14S18S.
199. Sims, G. R.,, D. A. Glenister,, T. F. Brocklehurst, and, B. M. Lund. 1989. Survival and growth of food poisoning bacteria following inoculation into cottage cheese varieties. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 9:173195.
200. Singh, I., and, J. S. Virdi. 2005. Interaction of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains of diverse origin with cultured cells in vitro. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 58:3133.
201. Skrzypek, E.,, C. Cowan, and, S. C. Straley. 1998. Targeting of the Yersinia pestis YopM protein into HeLa cells and intracellular trafficking to the nucleus. Mol. Microbiol. 30:10511065.
202. Skurnik, M.,, S. Batsford,, A. Mertz,, E. Schiltz, and, P. Toivanen. 1993. The putative arthritogenic cationic 19-kilodalton antigen of Yersinia enterocolitica is a urease beta-subunit. Infect. Immun. 61:24982504.
203. Skurnik, M.,, Y. el Tahir,, M. Saarinen,, S. Jalkanen, and, P. Toivanen. 1994. YadA mediates specific binding of enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica to human intestinal submucosa. Infect. Immun. 62:12521261.
204. Skurnik, M., and, P. Toivanen. 1993. Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharide: genetics and virulence. Trends Microbiol. 1:148152.
205. Skurnik, M.,, R. Venho,, J. A. Bengoechea, and, I. Moriyon. 1999. The lipopolysaccharide outer core of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 is required for virulence and plays a role in outer membrane integrity. Mol. Microbiol. 31:14431462.
206. Slee, K. J., and, C. Button. 1990. Enteritis in sheep and goats due to Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Aust. Vet. J. 67:396398.
207. Slee, K. J., and, N. W. Skilbeck. 1992. Epidemiology of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica infections in sheep in Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:712715.
208. Smith, M. G. 1992. Destruction of bacteria on fresh meat by hot water. Epidemiol. Infect. 109:491496.
209. Snellings, N. J.,, M. Popek, and, L. E. Lindler. 2001. Complete DNA sequence of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:8 low-calcium-response plasmid reveals a new virulence plasmid-associated replicon. Infect. Immun. 69:46274638.
210. Stern, N. J.,, M. D. Pierson, and, A. W. Kotula. 1980. Effects of pH and sodium chloride on Yersinia enterocolitica growth at room and refrigeration temperatures. J. Food Sci. 45:6467.
211. Stuart, P. M., and, J. G. Woodward. 1992. Yersinia enterocolitica produces superantigenic activity. J. Immunol. 148:225233.
212. Sulakvelidze, A. 2000. Yersiniae other than Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis: the ignored species. Microbes Infect. 2:497513.
213. Sulakvelidze, A.,, A. Kreger,, A. Joseph,, R. M. Robins-Browne,, A. Fasano,, G. Wauters,, N. Harnett,, L. DeTolla, and, J. G. Morris, Jr. 1999. Production of enterotoxin by Yersinia bercovieri, a recently identified Yersinia enterocolitica-like species. Infect. Immun. 67:968971.
214. Tacket, C. O.,, J. Ballard,, N. Harris,, J. Allard,, C. Nolan,, T. Quan, and, M. L. Cohen. 1985. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica infections caused by contaminated tofu (soybean curd). Am. J. Epidemiol. 121:705711.
215. Tacket, C. O.,, B. R. Davis,, G. P. Carter,, J. F. Randolph, and, M. L. Cohen. 1983. Yersinia enterocolitica pharyngitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 99:4042.
216. Tacket, C. O.,, J. P. Narain,, R. Sattin,, J. P. Lofgren,, C. Konigsberg, Jr.,, R. C. Rendtorff,, A. Rausa,, B. R. Davis, and, M. L. Cohen. 1984. A multistate outbreak of infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica transmitted by pasteurized milk. JAMA 251:483486.
217. Takao, T.,, T. Hitouji,, S. Aimoto,, Y. Shimonishi,, S. Hara,, T. Takeda,, Y. Takeda, and, T. Miwatani. 1983. Amino acid sequence of a heat-stable enterotoxin isolated from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain 18D. FEBS Lett. 152:15.
218. Takao, T.,, Y. Shimonishi,, M. Kobayashi,, O. Nishimura,, M. Arita,, T. Takeda,, T. Honda, and, T. Miwatani. 1985. Amino acid sequence of heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae non-O1. FEBS Lett. 193:250254.
219. Takao, T.,, N. Tominaga,, S. Yoshimura,, Y. Shimonishi,, S. Hara,, T. Inoue, and, A. Miyama. 1985. Isolation, primary structure and synthesis of heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Yersinia enterocolitica. Eur. J. Biochem. 152:199206.
220. Tauxe, R. V.,, J. Vandepitte,, G. Wauters,, S. M. Martin,, V. Goossens,, P. de Mol,, R. Van Noyen, and, G. Thiers. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica infections and pork: the missing link. Lancet i:11291132.
221. Tennant, S. M.,, T. H. Grant, and, R. M. Robins-Browne. 2003. Pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 38:127137.
222. Tennant, S. M.,, N. A. Skinner,, A. Joe, and, R. M. Robins-Browne. 2005. Homologues of insecticidal toxin complex genes in Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A and their contribution to virulence. Infect. Immun. 73:68606867.
223. Thompson, J. S., and, M. J. Gravel. 1986. Family outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 from well water. Can. J. Microbiol. 32:700701.
224. Tipple, M. A.,, L. A. Bland,, J. J. Murphy,, M. J. Arduino,, A. L. Panlilio,, J. J. Farmer III,, M. A. Tourault,, C. R. Macpherson,, J. E. Menitove, and, A. J. Grindon. 1990. Sepsis associated with transfusion of red cells contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Transfusion 30:207213.
225. Toivanen, P., and, A. Toivanen. 1994. Does Yersinia induce autoimmunity? Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 104:107111.
226. Tomer, Y., and, T. F. Davies. 1993. Infection, thyroid disease, and autoimmunity. Endocr. Rev. 14:107120.
227. Toora, S.,, E. Budu-Amoako,, R. F. Ablett, and, J. Smith. 1992. Effect of high-temperature short-time pasteurization, freezing and thawing and constant freezing, on the survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in milk. J. Food Prot. 55:803805.
228. Torruellas, J.,, M. W. Jackson,, J. W. Pennock, and, G. V. Plano. 2005. The Yersinia pestis type III secretion needle plays a role in the regulation of Yop secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 57:17191733.
229. Tsubokura, M.,, K. Otsuki,, K. Sato,, M. Tanaka,, T. Hongo,, H. Fukushima,, T. Maruyama, and, M. Inoue. 1989. Special features of distribution of Yersinia pseudo-tuberculosis in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:790791.
230. Tzipori, S.,, R. Robins-Browne, and, J. K. Prpic. 1987. Studies on the role of virulence determinants of Yersinia enterocolitica in gnotobiotic piglets. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:233238.
231. Une, T. 1977. Studies on the pathogenicity of Y. enterocolitica. I. Experimental infection in rabbits. Microbiol. Immunol. 21:349363.
232. Une, T., and, R. R. Brubaker. 1984. Roles of V antigen in promoting virulence and immunity in yersiniae. J. Immunol. 133:22262230.
233. Vahamiko, S.,, M. A. Penttinen, and, K. Granfors. 2005. Aetiology and pathogenesis of reactive arthritis: role of non-antigen-presenting effects of HLA-B27. Arthritis Res. Ther. 7:136141.
234. Van Noyen, R.,, R. Selderslaghs,, J. Bekaert,, G. Wauters, and, J. Vandepitte. 1991. Causative role of Yersinia and other enteric pathogens in the appendicular syndrome. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10:735741.
235. Venecia, K., and, G. M. Young. 2005. Environmental regulation and virulence attributes of the Ysa type III secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B. Infect. Immun. 73:59615977.
236. Viboud, G. I., and, J. B. Bliska. 2005. Yersinia outer proteins: role in modulation of host cell signaling responses and pathogenesis. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59:6989.
237. Viboud, G. I.,, S. S. So,, M. B. Ryndak, and, J. B. Bliska. 2003. Proinflammatory signalling stimulated by the type III translocation factor YopB is counteracted by multiple effectors in epithelial cells infected with Yersinia pseudo-tuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 47:13051315.
238. Virdi, J. S., and, P. Sachdeva. 2005. Molecular heterogeneity in Yersinia enterocolitica and ‘Y. enterocolitica-like’ species: implications for epidemiology, typing and taxonomy. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 45:110.
239. Virto, R.,, D. Sanz,, I. Alvarez,, S. Condon, and, J. Raso. 2005. Inactivation kinetics of Yersinia enterocolitica by citric and lactic acid at different temperatures. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 103:251257.
240. Visser, L. G.,, E. Seijmonsbergen,, P. H. Nibbering,, P. J. van den Broek, and, R. van Furth. 1999. Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes. Infect.Immun. 67:12451250.
241. Wachtel, M. R., and, V. L. Miller. 1995. In vitro and in vivo characterization of an ail mutant of Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 63:25412548.
242. Warren, S. M., and, G. M. Young. 2005. An amino-terminal secretion signal is required for YplA export by the Ysa, Ysc, and flagellar type III secretion systems of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B. J. Bacteriol. 187:60756083.
243. Wauters, G.,, S. Aleksic,, J. Charlier, and, G. Schulze. 1991. Somatic and flagellar antigens of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 12:239243.
244. Wauters, G.,, M. Janssens,, A. G. Steigerwalt, and, D. J. Brenner. 1988. Yersinia mollaretii sp. nov. and Yersinia bercovieri sp. nov., formerly called Yersinia enterocolitica biogroups 3A and 3B. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38:424429.
245. Wauters, G.,, K. Kandolo, and, M. Janssens. 1987. Revised biogrouping scheme of Yersinia enterocolitica. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:1421.
246. Weidow, C. L.,, D. S. Black,, J. B. Bliska, and, A. H. Bouton. 2000. CAS/Crk signalling mediates uptake of Yersinia into human epithelial cells. Cell. Microbiol. 2:549560.
247. Weinberg, E. D. 1984. Iron withholding: a defense against infection and neoplasia. Physiol. Rev. 64:65102.
248. Woestyn, S.,, A. Allaoui,, P. Wattiau, and, G. R. Cornelis. 1994. YscN, the putative energizer of the Yersinia Yop secretion machinery. J. Bacteriol. 176:15611569.
249. Wuytack, E. Y.,, A. M. Diels, and, C. W. Michiels. 2002. Bacterial inactivation by high-pressure homogenisation and high hydrostatic pressure. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 77:205212.
250. Yang, Y., and, R. R. Isberg. 1997. Transcriptional regulation of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis pH 6 antigen adhesin by two envelope-associated components. Mol. Microbiol. 24:499510.
251. Yip, C. K.,, T. G. Kimbrough,, H. B. Felise,, M. Vuckovic,, N. A. Thomas,, R. A. Pfuetzner,, E. A. Frey,, B. B. Finlay,, S. I. Miller, and, N. C. Strynadka. 2005. Structural characterization of the molecular platform for type III secretion system assembly. Nature 435:702707.
252. Yoshino, K.,, T. Takao,, X. Huang,, H. Murata,, H. Nakao,, T. Takeda, and, Y. Shimonishi. 1995. Characterization of a highly toxic, large molecular size heat-stable enterotoxin produced by a clinical isolate of Yersinia enterocolitica. FEBS Lett. 362:319322.
253. Young, B. M., and, G. M. Young. 2002. Evidence for targeting of Yop effectors by the chromosomally encoded Ysa type III secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 184:55635571.
254. Young, G. M.,, D. Amid, and, V. L. Miller. 1996. A bifunctional urease enhances survival of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Morganella morganii at low pH. J. Bacteriol. 178:64876495.
255. Zhang, Y.,, A. T. Ting,, K. B. Marcu, and, J. B. Bliska. 2005. Inhibition of MAPK and NF-kappa B pathways is necessary for rapid apoptosis in macrophages infected with Yersinia. J. Immunol. 174:79397949.
256. Zink, D. L.,, J. C. Feeley,, J. G. Wells,, C. Vanderzant,, J. C. Vickery,, W. D. Roof, and, G. A. O’Donovan. 1980. Plasmid-mediated tissue invasiveness in Yersinia enterocolitica. Nature 283:224226.


Generic image for table
Table 14.1

Some biochemical tests used to differentiate species

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.2

Biotyping scheme for

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.3

Relationship between O serotype and pathogenicity of and related species

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.4

Clinical manifestations of infections with

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.5

Selected foodborne outbreaks of infections with

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.6

Characteristics of pathogenic subgroups of

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.7

Major pYV-encoded determinants of and their roles in virulence

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error