1887

Chapter 16 : Species

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Species, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap16-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap16-2.gif

Abstract:

A number of reviews on the pathogenic vibrios have appeared over the years, although with the exception of those of and , relatively little is known of the virulence mechanisms they employ. One of the most consistent features of human vibrio infections is a recent history of seafood consumption. A survey of frozen raw shrimp imported from Mexico, China, and Ecuador found over 63% to harbor species, including and . By employing sucrose as a differentiating trait, 11 of the 12 human pathogenic vibrios can be separated on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) into 6 species which are generally sucrose positive and 5 species which are generally sucrose negative. With the exception of those of , , and , relatively little is known of the susceptibilities of vibrios to various food preservation methods. As with that of other species, the reservoir of is the aquatic environment. Indeed, studies from other laboratories using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and amplified fragment length polymorphisms all indicate that no two isolates have the same chromosomal arrangement. In addition to the role of capsule, iron, and endotoxin in the pathogenesis of infections, produces a large number of extracellular compounds, including hemolysin, protease, elastase, collagenase, DNase, lipase, phospholipase, mucinase, chondroitin sulfatase, hyaluronidase, and fibrinolysin.

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16

Key Concept Ranking

Infectious Diseases
0.4587
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4252632
Type III Secretion System
0.4089765
0.4587
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 16.1
Figure 16.1

Classic model of cholera toxin mode of action involving cAMP. More recent evidence indicates that prostaglandins and the ENS are also involved in the response to cholera toxin (see the text for details). (A) Adenylate cyclase, located in the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by G proteins. Cholera toxin binds via the B subunit pentamer (shown as open circles with the A subunit as the inverted solid triangle) to the GM1 ganglioside receptor inserted into the lipid bilayer. (B) The toxin enters the cell via endosomes, and the A1 peptide ADP-ribosylates G located in the basolateral membrane. (C) Increased cAMP activates PKA, leading to protein phosphorylation. In crypt cells, the protein phosphorylation leads to increased Cl secretion; in villus cells, it leads to decreased NaCl absorption. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.2
Figure 16.2

Correlation between culturability of spp. from estuarine environments and water temperature. Reprinted with permission from Pfeffer et al. ( ).

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.3
Figure 16.3

Morphologies of opaque (encapsulated) and translucent (nonencapsulated) colonies of .

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
1. Abbott, S. L., and, J. M. Janda. 1994. Severe gastroenteritis associated with Vibrio hollisae infection: report of two cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18:310312.
2. Abbott, S. L.,, J. M. Janda,, J. A. Johnson, and, J. J. Farmer III. 2006. Vibrio and related organisms, p. 723733. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry, and, M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
3. Ahn, S.-H.,, J.-H. Han,, J.-H. Lee,, K.-J. Park, and, I.-S. Kong. 2005. Identification of an iron-regulated hemin-binding outer membrane protein, HupO, in Vibrio fluvialis: effects on hemolytic activity and the oxidative stress response. Infect. Immun. 73:722729.
4. Albert, M. J. 1994. Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:23452349.
5. Albert, M. J., and, G. B. Nair. 2005. Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal—10 years on. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 16:135143.
6. Andrews, L.,, D. L. Park, and, Y.-P. Chen. 2000. Low temperature pasteurization to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections in raw-shellstock oysters. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Seafood Science and Technology Society. Seafood Science and Technology Society, Long-boat Key, Fla.
7. Andrews, L.,, M. Jahncke, and, K. Mallikarjunan. 2003. Low dose gamma irradiation to reduce pathogenic vibrios in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica). J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 121:7182.
8. Anonymous. 1978. V. parahaemolyticus foodborne outbreak—Louisiana. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 27:345346.
9. Bean, N. H., and, P. M. Griffin. 1990. Foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973–1987: pathogens, vehicles, and trends. J. Food Prot. 53:804817.
10. Benitez, J. A.,, L. Garcia,, A. Silva,, H. Garcia,, R. Fando,, B. Cedre,, A. Perez,, J. Campos,, B. L. Rodriguez,, J. L. Perez,, T. Valmaseda,, O. Perez,, A. Perez,, M. Ramirez,, T. Ledon,, M. D. Jidy,, M. Lastre,, L. Bravo, and, G. Sierra. 1999. Preliminary assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of a new CTXF-negative, hemagglutinin/protease-defective El Tor strain as a cholera vaccine candidate. Infect. Immun. 67:539545.
11. Berry, T. M.,, D. L. Park, and, D. V. Lightner. 1994. Comparison of the microbial quality of raw shrimp from China, Ecuador, or Mexico at both wholesale and retail levels. J. Food Prot. 57:150153.
12. Beuchat, L. R. 1982. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: public health significance. Food Technol. 36(3): 8083, 92.
13. Bina, J.,, J. Zhu,, M. Dziejman,, S. Faruque,, S. Calderwood, and, J. Mekalanos. 2003. ToxR regulon of Vibrio cholerae and its expression in vibrios shed by cholera patients. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:28012806.
14. Bisharat, N.,, D. I. Cohen,, R. M. Harding,, D. Falush,, D. W. Crook,, T. Peto, and, M. C. Maiden. 2005. Hybrid Vibrio vulnificus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:3035.
15. Blake, P. A. 1994. Endemic cholera in Australia and the United States, p. 309319. In I. K. Wachsmuth,, P. A. Blake, and, O. Olsvik (ed.), Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
16. Bonner, J. R.,, A. S. Coker,, C. R. Berryman, and, H. M. Pollock. 1983. Spectrum of Vibrio infections in a Gulf Coast community. Ann. Intern. Med. 99:464469.
17. Brenner, D. J.,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, J. V. Lee,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, G. R. Fanning,, D. G. Hollis,, J. J. Farmer III,, R. E. Weaver,, S. W. Joseph, and, R. J. Seidler. 1983. Vibrio furnissii (formerly aerogenic biogroup of Vibrio fluvialis), a new species isolated from human feces and the environment. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:816824.
18. Buchrieser, C.,, V. V. Gangar,, R. L. Murphree,, M. L. Tamplin, and, C. W. Kaspar. 1995. Multiple Vibrio vulnificus strains in oysters as demonstrated by clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:11631168.
19. Buck, J. D. 1998. Potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. in market seafood and natural habitats from Southern New England and Florida. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 7:5362.
20. Burkhardt, W., III,, S. R. Rippey, and, W. D. Watkins. 1992. Depuration rates of Northern quahogs Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758) and Eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) in ozone- and ultraviolet light-disinfected seawater systems. J. Shellfish Res. 11:105109.
21. Bush, C. A.,, P. Patel,, S. Gunawardena,, J. Powell,, A. Joseph,, J. A. Johnson, and, J. G. Morris. 1997. Classification of Vibrio vulnificus strains by the carbohydrate composition of their capsular polysaccharides. Anal. Biochem. 250:186195.
22. Butler, S. M., and, A. Camilli. 2005. Going against the grain: chemotaxis and infection in Vibrio cholerae. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3:611620.
23. Calik, H.,, M. T. Morrissey,, P. Reno,, R. Adams, and, H. An. 2000. The use of high hydrostatic pressure for reduction of vibrio in oysters. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Seafood Science and Technology Society. Seafood Science and Technology Society, Longboat Key, Fla.
24. Cameron, D. N.,, F. M. Khambaty,, I. K. Wachsmuth,, R. V. Tauxe, and, T. J. Barrett. 1994. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:16851690.
25. Camilli, A., and, B. L. Bassler. 2006. Bacterial small-molecule signaling pathways. Science 311:11131116.
26. Chang, A. L.,, H. Y. Kim,, J. E. Park,, P. Acharya,, I.-S. Park,, S. M. Yoon,, H. J. You,, K.-S. Ham,, J. K. Park, and, J. S. Lee. 2005. Vibrio vulnificus secretes a broad-specificity metalloprotease capable of interfering with blood homeostasis through prothrombin activation and fibrinolysis. J. Bacteriol. 187:69096916.
27. Chatzidaki-Livanis, M.,, M. K. Jones, and, A. C. Wright. 2006. Genetic variation in the Vibrio vulnificus group 1 capsular polysaccharide operon. J. Bacteriol. 188:19871998.
28. Chien, J. Y.,, J. T. Shih,, P. R. Hsueh,, P. C. Yang, and, K. T. Luh. 2002. Vibrio alginolyticus as the cause of pleural empyema and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21:401403.
29. Chikahira, M., and, K. Hamada. 1988. Enterotoxigenic substances and other toxins produced by Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio furnissii. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 50:865873.
30. Chowdhury, M. A. R.,, K. M. S. Aziz,, B. A. Kay, and, Z. Rahim. 1987. Toxin production by Vibrio mimicus strains isolated from human and environmental sources in Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:22002203.
31. Chowdhury, M. A. R.,, H. Yamanaka,, S. Miyoshi,, K. M. S. Aziz, and, S. Shinoda. 1989. Ecology of Vibrio mimicus in aqautic environments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:20732078.
32. Chowdhury, N. R.,, S. Chakraborty,, T. Ramamurthy,, M. Nishibuchi,, S. Yamasaki,, Y. Takeda, and, G. B. Nair. 2000. Molecular evidence of clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:631636.
33. Colwell, R. R., and, A. Huq. 1994. Vibrios in the environment: viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae, p. 117133. In K. Wachsmuth,, P. A. Blake, and, O. Olsvik (ed.), Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
34. Colwell, R. R.,, M. L. Tamplin,, P. R. Brayton,, A. L. Gauzens,, B. D. Tall,, D. Herrington,, M. M. Levine,, S. Hall,, A. Huq, and, D. A. Sack. 1990. Environmental aspects of Vibrio cholerae in transmission of cholera, p. 327343. In R. B. Sack and, Y. Zinnaka (ed.), Advances in Research on Cholera and Related Diarrheas, vol. 7. KTK Scientific Publishers, Tokyo, Japan.
35. Comstock, L. E.,, J. A. Johnson,, J. M. Michalski,, J. G. Morris, Jr., and, J. B. Kaper. 1996. Cloning and sequence of a region encoding surface polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O139 and characterization of the insertion site in the chromosome of Vibrio cholerae O1. Mol. Microbiol. 19:815826.
36. Cook, D. W. 1994. Effect of time and temperature on multiplication of Vibrio vulnificus in postharvest Gulf Coast shellstock oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:34833484.
37. Cook, D. W., and, A. D. Ruple. 1992. Cold storage and mild heat treatment as processing aids to reduce the numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in raw oysters. J. Food Prot. 55:985989.
38. Dadisman, T. A.,, R. Nelson,, J. R. Molenda, and, H. J. Garber. 1972. Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in Maryland. I. Clinical and epidemiological aspects. Am. J. Epidemiol. 96:414426.
39. Dalsgaard, A.,, O. Serichantalergs,, A. Forslund,, W. Lin,, J. Mekalanos,, E. Mintz,, T. Shimada, and, J. G. Wells. 2001. Clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O141 carry the CTX phage and the genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pili. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:40864092.
40. Daniels, N. A.,, L. MacKinnon,, R. Bishop,, S. Altekruse,, B. Ray,, R. M. Hammond,, S. Thompson,, S. Wilson,, N. H. Bean,, P. M. Griffin, and, L. Slutsker. 2000. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections in the United States, 1973–1998. J. Infect. Dis. 181:16611666.
41. Davis, B. R.,, G. R. Fanning,, J. M. Madden,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, H. B. Bradford, Jr.,, H. L. Smith, Jr., and, D. J. Brenner. 1981. Characterization of biochemically atypical Vibrio cholerae strains and designation of a new pathogenic species, Vibrio mimicus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:631639.
42. de Haan, L., and, T. R. Hirst. 2004. Cholera toxin: a paradigm for multi-functional engagement of cellular mechanisms. Mol. Membr. Biol. 21:7792.
43. DePaola, A.,, G. M. Capers, and, D. Alexander. 1994. Densities of Vibrio vulnificus in the intestines of fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:984988.
44. DePaola, A.,, J. L. Norstrom,, J. C. Bowers,, J. G. Wells, and, D. W. Cook. 2003. Seasonal abundance and total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Alabama oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:15211526.
45. DePaola, A.,, J. Ulaszek,, C. A. Kaysner,, B. J. Tenge,, J. L. Nordstrom,, J. Wells,, N. Puhr, and, S. M. Gendel. 2003. Molecular, serological, and virulence characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from environmental, food, and clinical sources in North America and Asia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:39994005.
46. Desenclos, J.-C. A.,, K. C. Klontz,, L. E. Wolfe, and, S. Hoecherl. 1991. The risk of Vibrio illness in the Florida raw oyster eating population, 1981–1988. Am. J. Epidemiol. 134:290297.
47. Dixon, W. D. 1992. The effects of gamma radiation (60Co) upon shellstock oysters in terms of shelf life and bacterial reduction, including Vibrio vulnificus levels. M.S. thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
48. Dziejman, M.,, D. Serruto,, V. C. Tam,, D. Sturtevant,, P. Diraphat,, S. M. Faruque,, M. H. Rahman,, J. F. Heidelberg,, J. Decker,, L. Li,, K. T. Montgomery,, G. Grills,, R. Kucherlapati, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2005. Genomic characterization of non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae reveals genes for a type III secretion system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:34653470.
49. Elhadi, N.,, S. Radu,, C.-H. Chen, and, M. Nishibuchi. 2004. Prevalence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in the seafood marketed in Malaysia. J. Food. Prot. 67:14691475.
50. Eyles, M. J., and, G. R. Davey. 1984. Microbiology of commercial depuration of the Sydney rock oyster, Crassostrea commercialis. J. Food Prot. 47:703706.
51. Farmer, J. J., III,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, and, M. T. Kelly. 1985. Vibrio, p. 282301. In E. H. Lennette et al. (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
52. Farmer, J. J., III,, R. E. Weaver,, S. W. Joseph, and, R. J. Seidler. 1983. Vibrio furnissii (formerly aerogenic biogroup of Vibrio fluvialis), a new species isolated from human feces and the environment. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:816824.
53. Faruque, S. M.,, I. B. Naser,, M. J. Islam,, A. S. Faruque,, A. N. Ghosh,, G. B. Nair,, D. A. Sack, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2005. Seasonal epidemics of cholera inversely correlate with the prevalence of environmental cholera phages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:17021707.
54. Fasano, A.,, B. Baudry,, D. W. Pumplin,, S. S. Wasserman,, B. D. Tall,, J. M. Ketley, and, J. B. Kaper. 1991. Vibrio cholerae produces a second enterotoxin, which affects intestinal tight junctions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:52425246.
55. Fullner, K. J. 2003. Toxins of Vibrio cholerae: consensus and controversy, p. 481502. In G. A. Hecht (ed.), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
56. Fullner, K. J., and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2000. In vivo covalent cross-linking of cellular actin by the Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin. EMBO J. 19:53155323.
57. Fullner, K. J.,, J. C. Boucher,, M. A. Hanes,, G. K. Haines, III,, B. M. Meehan,, C. Walchle,, P. J. Sansonetti, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2002. The contribution of accessory toxins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor to the proinflammatory response in a murine pulmonary cholera model. J. Exp. Med. 195:14551462.
58. Glass, R. I., and, R. E. Black. 1992. The epidemiology of cholera, p. 129154. In D. Barua and, W. B. Greenough III (ed.), Cholera. Plenum Medical Book Co., New York, N.Y.
59. Gopal, S.,, S. K. Otta,, S. Kumar,, I. Karunasagar,, M. Nishibuchi, and, I. Karunasagar. 2005. The occurrence of Vibrio species in tropical shrimp culture environments; implications for food safety. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 102:151159.
60. Gras-Rouzet, S.,, P. Y. Donnio,, F. Juguet,, P. Plessis,, J. Minet, and, J. L. Avril. 1996. First European case of gastroenteritis and bacteremia due to Vibrio hollisae. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:864866.
61. Grau, B. L.,, M. C. Henk, and, G. S. Pettis. 2005. High-frequency phase variation of Vibrio vulnificus 1003: isolation and characterization of a rugose phenotypic variant. J. Bacteriol. 187:25192525.
62. Groubert, T. N., and, J. D. Oliver. 1994. Interaction of Vibrio vulnificus and the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. J. Food Prot. 57:224228.
63. Gulig, P. A.,, K. L. Bourdage, and, A. M. Starks. 2005. Molecular pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus. J. Microbiol. 43:118131.
64. Gutacker, M.,, N. Conza,, C. Benagli,, A. Pedroli,, M. V. Bernasconi,, L. Permin,, R. Aznar, and, J.-C. Piffaretti. 2003. Population genetics of Vibrio vulnificus: identification of two divisions and a distinct eel-pathogenic clone. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:32033212.
65. Hackney, C. R.,, B. Ray, and, M. L. Speck. 1980. Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in and the microbiological quality of seafood in North Carolina. J. Food Prot. 43:769773.
66. Hammer, B. K., and, B. L. Bassler. 2003. Quorum sensing controls biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae. Mol. Microbiol. 50:101104.
67. Han, H.-H.,, J.-H. Lee,, Y.-H. Choi,, J.-H. Park,, T.-J. Choi, and, I.-S. Kong. 2002. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of Vibrio fluvialis hemolysin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1599:106114.
68. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, T. Nishina,, H. Nakagawa,, H. Konuma,, J. Hasegawa, and, S. Kumagai. 2001. Improved method for detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:58195823.
69. Hardy, S. P.,, M. Nakano, and, T. Iida. 2004. Single channel evidence for innate pore-formation by Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) in phospholipid bilayers. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 240:8185.
70. Harwood, V. J.,, J. P. Gandhi, and, A. C. Wright. 2004. Methods for isolation and confirmation of Vibrio vulnificus from oysters and environmental sources: a review. J. Microbiol. Methods 59:301316.
71. Hayat, U.,, G. P. Reddy,, C. A. Bush,, J. A. Johnson,, A. C. Wright, and, J. G. Morris, Jr. 1993. Capsular types of Vibrio vulnificus: an analysis of strains from clinical and environmental sources. J. Infect. Dis. 168:758762.
72. He, H.,, R. M. Adams,, D. F. Farkas, and, M. T. Morrissey. 2001. The use of high hydrostatic pressure to shuck oysters and extend shelf-life. J. Shellfish Res. 20:12991300.
73. Henke, J. M., and, B. L. Bassler. 2004. Quorum sensing regulates type III secretion in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Bacteriol. 186:37943805.
74. Hickman, F. W.,, J. J. Farmer III,, D. G. Hollis,, G. R. Fanning,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, R. E. Weaver, and, D. J. Brenner. 1982. Identification of Vibrio hollisae sp. nov. from patients with diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:395401.
75. Hillman, C. 2000. Commercial pioneering of frozen oysters. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Seafood Science and Technology Society. Seafood Science and Technology Society, Longboat Key, Fla.
76. Hlady, W. G. 1997. Vibrio infections associated with raw oyster consumption in Florida, 1981–94. J. Food Prot. 60:353357.
77. Hlady, W. G., and, K. C. Klontz. 1996. The epidemiology of Vibrio infections in Florida, 1981–1993. J. Infect. Dis. 173:11761183.
78. Hlady, W. G.,, R. C. Mullen, and, R. S. Hopkin. 1993. Vibrio vulnificus from raw oysters. Leading cause of reported deaths from foodborne illness in Florida. J. Fla. Med. Assoc. 80:536538.
79. Hoge, C. W.,, D. Watsky,, R. N. Peeler,, J. P. Libonati,, E. Israel, and, J. G. Morris, Jr. 1989. Epidemiology and spectrum in Vibrio infections in a Chesapeake Bay USA community. J. Infect. Dis. 160:985993.
80. Honda, T.,, Y. Ni,, Y. Miwatani,, T. Adachi, and, J. Kim. 1992. The thermostable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pore-forming toxin. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:11751180.
81. Huq, M. I.,, A. K. M. J. Alam,, D. J. Brenner, and, G. K. Morris. 1980. Isolation of Vibrio-like group, EF-6, from patients with diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:621624.
82. Jakabi, M.,, D. S. Gelli,, J. C. Torre,, M. A. B. Rodas,, B. D. G. M. Franco,, M. T. Destro, and, M. Landgrafi. 2003. Inactivation by ionizing radiation of Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella infantis, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana). J. Food Prot. 66:10251029.
83. Johnston, J. M.,, S. F. Becker, and, L. M. McFarland. 1986. Gastroenteritis in patients with stool isolations of Vibrio vulnificus. Am. J. Med. 80:336338.
84. Jones, S. H.,, T. L. Howell, and, K. R. O’Neill. 1991. Differential elimination of indicator bacteria and pathogenic Vibrio sp. from Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica gmelin, 1791) in a commercial purification facility in Maine. J. Shellfish Res. 10:105112.
85. Joseph, S. W.,, R. R. Colwell, and, J. B. Kaper. 1982. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related halophilic vibrios. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 10:77124.
86. Kaneko, T., and, R. R. Colwell. 1978. The annual cycle of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay. Microb. Ecol. 4:135155.
87. Kaper, J. B., and, V. Sperandio. 2005. Bacterial cell-to-cell signaling in the gastrointestinal tract. Infect. Immun. 73:31973209.
88. Kaper, J. B.,, J. G. Morris, Jr., and, M. M. Levine. 1995. Cholera. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:4886.
89. Karaolis, D. K. R.,, J. A. Johnson,, C. C. Bailey,, E. C. Boedeker,, J. B. Kaper, and, P. R. Reeves. 1998. A Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity island associated with epidemic and pandemic strains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:31343139.
90. Kaysner, C. A., and, A. DePaola, Jr. 2004. Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online, chapter 9. [Online.] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Md. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼ebam/bam-9.html.
91. Kaysner, C. A., and, W. E. Hill. 1994. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in food and water, p. 2739. In I. K. Wachsmuth,, P. A. Blake, and, O. Olsvik (ed.), Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
92. Kaysner, C. A.,, C. Abeyta,, M. M. Wekell,, A. DePaola,, R. F. Stott, and, J. M. Leitch. 1987. Virulent strains of Vibrio vulnificus from estuaries of the U.S. West Coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:13491351.
93. Kilgen, M. B. 2000. Processing controls for Vibrio vulnificus in raw oysters—commercial hydrostatic high pressure. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Seafood Science and Technology Society. Seafood Science and Technology Society, Longboat Key, Fla.
94. Kim, R. K.,, S. E. Lee,, C. M. Kim,, S. Y. Kim,, E. K. Shin,, D. H. Shin,, S. S. Chung,, H. E. Choy,, A. Progulske-Fox,, J. D. Hillman,, M. Handfield, and, J. H. Rhee. 2003. Characterization and pathogenic significance of Vibrio vulnificus antigens preferentially expressed in septicemic patients. Infect. Immun. 71:54615471.
95. Kim, Y. R.,, S. Y. Kim,, C. M. Kim,, S. E. Lee, and, J. H. Rhee. 2005. Essential role of an adenylate cyclase in regulating Vibrio vulnificus virulence. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 243:497503.
96. Kirn, T. J.,, B. A. Jude, and, R. K. Taylor. 2005. A colonization factor links Vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human infection. Nature 438:863866.
97. Klontz, K. C., and, J.-C. A. Desenclos. 1990. Clinical and epidemiological features of sporadic infections with Vibrio fluvialis in Florida, USA. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 8:12.
98. Klontz, K. C.,, D. E. Cover,, F. N. Hyman, and, R. C. Mullen. 1994. Fatal gastroenteritis due to Vibrio fluvialis and nonfatal bacteremia due to Vibrio mimicus: unusual vibrio infections in two patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:541542.
99. Koch, W. H.,, W. L. Payne,, B. A. Wentz, and, T. A. Cebula. 1993. Rapid polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Vibrio cholerae in foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:556560.
100. Kodama, H.,, Y. Gyobu,, N. Tokuman,, H. Uetake,, T. Shimada, and, R. Sakazaki. 1988. Ecology of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus in Toyama prefecture, p. 7988. In N. Ohtomo and, R. B. Sack (ed.), Advances in Research on Cholera and Related Diarrheas, vol. 6. KTK Scientific Publishers, Tokyo, Japan.
101. Kotetishvili, M.,, O. C. Stine,, Y. Chen,, A. Kreger,, A. Sulakvelidze,, S. Sozhamannan, and, J. G. Morris, Jr. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing has better discriminatory ability for typing Vibrio cholerae than does pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and provides a measure of phylogenetic relatedness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:21912196.
102. Kothary, M. H.,, E. F. Claverie,, M. D. Miliotis,, J. M. Madden, and, S. H. Richardson. 1995. Purification and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell elongation factor of Vibrio hollisae. Infect. Immun. 63:24182423.
103. Kothary, M. H.,, H. Lowman,, B. A. McCardell, and, B. D. Tall. 2003. Purification and characterization of enterotoxigenic El Tor-like hemolysin produced by Vibrio fluvialis. Infect. Immun. 71:32133220.
104. Krukonis, E. S., and, V. J. DiRita. 2003. From motility to virulence: sensing and responding to environmental signals in Vibrio cholerae. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6:186190.
105. Lee, J. V.,, P. Shread, and, A. L. Furniss. 1978. The taxonomy of group F organisms: relationships to Vibrio and Aeromonas. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 45:ix.
106. Lee, S. H.,, D. L. Hava,, M. K. Waldor, and, A. Camilli. 1999. Regulation and temporal expression patterns of Vibrio cholerae virulence genes during infection. Cell 99:625634.
107. Lenz, D. H.,, M. B. Miller,, J. Zhu,, R. V. Kulkarni, and, B. L. Bassler. 2005. CsrA and three redundant small RNAs regulate quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae. Mol. Microbiol. 58:11861202.
108. Lesmana, M.,, D. S. Subekti,, P. Tjaniadi,, C. H. Simanjuntak,, N. H. Punjabi,, J. R. Campbell, and, B. A. Oyofo. 2002. Spectrum of vibrio species associated with acute diarrhea in North Jakarta, Indonesia. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 43:9197.
109. Levine, M. M.,, R. E. Black,, M. L. Clements,, D. R. Nalin,, L. Cisneros, and, R. A. Finkelstein. 1981. Volunteer studies in development of vaccines against cholera and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a review, p. 443459. In T. Holme,, J. Holmgren,, M. H. Merson, and, R. Mollby (ed.), Acute Enteric Infections in Children. New Prospects for Treatment and Prevention. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
110. Levine, M. M.,, J. B. Kaper,, D. Herrington,, G. Losonsky,, J. G. Morris,, M. L. Clements,, R. E. Black,, B. Tall, and, R. Hall. 1988. Volunteer studies of deletion mutants of Vibrio cholerae O1 prepared by recombinant techniques. Infect. Immun. 56:161167.
111. Levine, W. C.,, P. M. Griffin, andthe Gulf Coast Vibrio Working Group. 1993. Vibrio infections on the Gulf Coast: results of first year of regional surveillance. J. Infect. Dis. 167:479483.
112. Linkous, D. A., and, J. D. Oliver. 1999. Pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 174:207214.
113. Lockwood, D. E.,, A. S. Kreger, and, S. H. Richardson. 1982. Detection of toxins produced by Vibrio fluvialis. Infect. Immun. 35:702708.
114. Lowry, P. W.,, L. M. McFarland, and, H. K. Threefoot. 1986. Vibrio hollisae septicemia after consumption of catfish. J. Infect. Dis. 154:730731.
115. Lowry, P. W.,, L. M. McFarland,, B. H. Peltier,, N. C. Roberts,, H. B. Bradford,, J. L. Herndon,, D. F. Stroup,, J. B. Mathison,, P. A. Blake, and, R. A. Gunn. 1989. Vibrio gastroenteritis in Louisiana: a prospective study among attendees of a scientific congress in New Orleans. J. Infect. Dis. 160:978984.
116. Magalhaes, V.,, A. Castello Filho,, M. Magalhaes, and, T. T. Gomes. 1993. Laboratory evaluation on pathogenic potentialities of Vibrio furnissii. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro 88:593597.
117. Makino, K.,, K. Oshima,, K. Kurokawa,, K. Yokoyama,, T. Uda,, K. Tagomori,, Y. Iijima,, M. Najima,, M. Nakano,, A. Yamashita,, Y. Kubota,, S. Kimura,, T. Yasunaga,, T. Honda,, H. Shinagawa,, M. Hattori, and, T. Iida. 2003. Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V. cholerae. Lancet 361:743749.
118. Martinez-Urtaza, J.,, A. Lozano-Leon,, A. Vina-Feas,, J. de Novoa, and, O. Garcia-Martin. 2006. Differences in the API 20E biochemical patterns of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 255:7581.
119. Matté, G. R.,, M. H. Matté,, I. G. Rivera, and, M. T. Martins. 1994. Distribution of pathogenic vibrios in oysters from a tropical region. J. Food Prot. 57:870873.
120. Matz, C.,, D. McDougald,, A. M. Moreno,, P. Y. Yung,, F. H. Yildiz, and, S. Kjelleberg. 2005. Biofilm formation and phenotypic variation enhance predation-driven persistence of Vibrio cholerae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1681916824.
121. McLaughlin, J. B.,, A. DePaola,, C. A. Bopp,, K. A. Martinek,, N. P. Napolilli,, C. G. Allison,, S. L. Murray,, E. C. Thompson,, M. M. Bird, and, J. P. Middaugh. 2005. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis associated with Alaskan oysters. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:14631470.
122. McLeod, S. M.,, H. H. Kimsey,, B. M. Davis, and, M. K. Waldor. 2005. CTXphi and Vibrio cholerae: exploring a newly recognized type of phage-host cell relationship. Mol. Microbiol. 57:347356.
123. McPherson, V. L.,, J. A. Watts,, L. M. Simpson, and, J. D. Oliver. 1991. Physiological effects of the lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio vulnificus on mice and rats. Microbios 67:141149.
124. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin, and, R. B. V. Tauxe. September–October, 1999, posting date. September 15, 1999. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/mead.htm.
125. Meibom, K. L.,, M. Blokesch,, N. A. Dolganov,, C. Y. Wu, and, G. K. Schoolnik. 2005. Chitin induces natural competence in Vibrio cholerae. Science 310:18241827.
126. Merkel, S. M.,, S. Alexander,, J. D. Oliver, and, Y. M. Huet-Hudson. 2001. Essential role for estrogen in protection against Vibrio vulnificus-induced endotoxic shock. Infect. Immun. 69:61196122.
127. Merrell, D. S.,, S. M. Butler,, F. Qadri,, N. A. Dolganov,, A. Alam,, M. B. Cohen,, S. B. Calderwood,, G. K. Schoolnik, and, A. Camilli. 2002. Host-induced epidemic spread of the cholera bacterium. Nature 417:642645.
128. Mey, A. R.,, E. E. Wyckoff,, V. Kanukurthy,, C. R. Fisher, and, S. M. Payne. 2005. Iron and fur regulation in Vibrio cholerae and the role of Fur in virulence. Infect. Immun. 73:81678178.
129. Miliotis, M. D.,, B. D. Tall, and, R. T. Gray. 1995. Adherence to and invasion of tissue culture cells by Vibrio hollisae. Infect. Immun. 63:49594963.
130. Mintz, E. D.,, T. Popovic, and, P. A. Blake. 1994. Transmission of Vibrio cholerae O1, p. 345356. In I. K. Wachsmuth,, P. A. Blake, and, O. Olsvik (ed.), Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
131. Morris, J. G., Jr. 1990. Non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae: a look at the epidemiology of an occasional pathogen. Epidemiol. Rev. 12:179191.
132. Morris, J. G., Jr. 1995. “Noncholera” Vibrio species, p. 671685. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg, and, R. L. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. M. Raven Press, Ltd., New York, N.Y.
133. Morris, J. G., Jr. 2003. Cholera and other types of vibriosis: a story of human pandemics and oysters on the half shell. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:272280.
134. Morris, J. G., Jr.,, H. G. Miller,, R. Wilson,, C. O. Tacket,, D. G. Hollis,, F. W. Hickman,, R. E. Weaver, and, P. A. Blake. 1982. Illness caused by Vibrio damsela and Vibrio hollisae. Lancet i:12941296.
135. Morris, J. G., Jr.,, A. C. Wright,, D. M. Roberts,, P. K. Wood,, L. M. Simpson, and, J. D. Oliver. 1987. Identification of environmental Vibrio vulnificus isolates with a DNA probe for the cytotoxin-hemolysin gene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:193195.
136. Motes, M.,, A. DePaola,, S. Zywno-Van Ginkel, and, M. McPhearson. 1994. Occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in oysters in Mobile Bay, Alabama: an ecological investigation. J. Food Prot. 57:975980.
137. Motes, M. L.,, A. DePaola,, D. W. Cook,, J. E. Veazey,, J. C. Hunsucker,, W. E. Garthright,, R. J. Blodgett, and, S. Chirtel. 1998. Influence of water temperature and salinity on Vibrio vulnificus in Northern Gulf and Atlantic Coast oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:14591465.
138. Nascumento, D. R.,, R. H. Vieira,, H. B. Almeida,, T. R. Patel, and, S. T. Iaria. 1998. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains in shrimp subjected to freezing and boiling. J. Food Prot. 61:13171320.
139. Nesper, J.,, S. Schild,, C. M. Lauriano,, A. Kraiss,, K. E. Klose, and, J. Reidl. 2002. Role of Vibrio cholerae O139 surface polysaccharides in intestinal colonization. Infect. Immun. 70:59905996.
140. Nishibuchi, M., and, J. B. Kaper. 1995. Thermostable direct hemolysin gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a virulence gene acquired by a marine bacterium. Infect. Immun. 63:20932099.
141. Nishibuchi, M., and, A. DePaola. 2005. Vibrio species, p. 251271. In P. M. Fratamico,, A. K. Bhunia, and, J. L. Smith (ed.), Food-Borne Pathogens: Microbiology and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
142. Nishibuchi, M.,, A. Fasano,, R. G. Russell, and, J. B. Kaper. 1992. Enterotoxigenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with and without genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin. Infect. Immun. 60:35393545.
143. Nishibuchi, M.,, T. Taniguchi,, T. Misawa,, V. Khaeomaneeiam,, T. Honda, and, T. Miwatani. 1989. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene (trh) encoding the hemolysin related to the thermostable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Infect. Immun. 57:26912697.
144. Okeke, I. N.,, J. Eardley,, C. C. Bailey, and, J. B. Kaper. 2001. Vibrio cholerae, p. 11911236. In M. Sussman (ed.), Molecular Medical Microbiology. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
145. Oliver, J. D. 1989. Vibrio vulnificus, p. 569600. In M. P. Doyle (ed.), Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
146. Oliver, J. D. 2000. Public health significance of viable but nonculturable bacteria, p. 277300. In R. R. Colwell and, D. J. Grimes (ed.), Nonculturable Microorganisms in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
147. Oliver, J. D. 2000. Culture media for the isolation and enumeration of pathogenic Vibrio species in foods and environmental samples. In J. E. L. Corry,, G. D. W. Curtis, and, R. M. Baird (ed.), Culture Media for Food Microbiology, 2nd ed. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
148. Oliver, J. D. 2005. Viable but nonculturable bacteria in food environments. In P. M. Fratamico,, A. K. Bhunia, and, J. L. Smith (ed.), Food-Borne Pathogens: Microbiology and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
149. Oliver, J. D. 2005. Vibrio vulnificus, p. 253276. In S. Belkin and, R. R. Colwell (ed.), Oceans and Health: Pathogens in the Marine Environment. Springer Science, New York, N.Y.
150. Oliver, J. D. 2005. The viable but nonculturable state in bacteria. J. Microbiol. 43:93100.
151. Oliver, J. D. 2006. Vibrio vulnificus, p. 349366. In F. L. Thompson,, B. Austin, and, J. Swing (ed.), Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
152. Oliver, J. D.,, M. B. Thomas, and, J. Wear. 1986. Production of extracellular enzymes and cytotoxicity by Vibrio vulnificus. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 5:99111.
153. Oliver, J. D.,, D. M. Roberts,, V. K. White,, M. A. Dry, and, L. M. Simpson. 1986. Bioluminescence in a strain of the human bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:12091211.
154. Ono, T.,, K. S. Park,, M. Ueta,, T. Iida, and, T. Honda. 2006. Identification of proteins secreted via Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 1. Infect. Immun. 74:10321042.
155. Panicker, G., and, A. K. Bej. 2005. Real-time PCR detection of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters: comparison of oligonucleotide primers and probes targeting vvhA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:57025709.
156. Park, K. S.,, T. Iida,, Y. Yamaichi,, T. Oyagi,, K. Yamamoto, and, T. Honda. 2000. Genetic characterization of DNA region containing the trh and ure genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Infect. Immun. 68:57425748.
157. Park, K. S.,, T. Ono,, M. Rokuda,, M. H. Jang,, K. Okada,, T. Iida, and, T. Honda. 2004. Functional characterization of two type III secretion systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Infect. Immun. 72:66596665.
158. Parker, R. W.,, E. M. Maurer,, A. B. Childers, and, D. H. Lewis. 1994. Effect of frozen storage and vacuum-packaging on survival of Vibrio vulnificus in Gulf Coast oysters (Crassostrea virginica). J. Food Prot. 57:604606.
159. Pfeffer, C. S.,, M. F. Hite, and, J. D. Oliver. 2003. The ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in estuarine waters of eastern North Carolina. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:35263531.
160. Popovic, T.,, P. I. Fields, and, O. Olsvik. 1994. Detection of cholera toxin genes, p. 4152. In I. K. Wachsmuth,, P. A. Blake, and, O. Olsvik (ed.), Vibrio cholerae and Cholera. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
161. Qadri, F.,, M. S. Alam,, M. Nishibuchi,, T. Rahman,, N. H. Alam,, J. Chisti,, S. Kondo,, J. Sugiyama,, N. A. Bhuiyan,, M. M. Mathan,, D. A. Sack, and, G. B. Nair. 2003. Adaptive and inflammatory immune responses in patients infected with strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Infect. Dis. 187:10851096.
162. Rabbani, G. H., and, W. B. Greenough III. 1999. Food as a vehicle of transmission of cholera. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 17:19.
163. Raimondi, D.,, J. P. Y. Kao,, J. B. Kaper,, S. Guandalini, and, A. Fasano. 1995. Calcium-dependent intestinal chloride secretion by Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin in a rabbit model. Gastroenterology 109:381386.
164. Rashid, H. O.,, H. Ito, and, I. Ishigaki. 1992. Distribution of pathogenic vibrios and other bacteria in imported frozen shrimps and their decontamination by gammairradiation. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 8:494499.
165. Reidl, J., and, K. E. Klose. 2002. Vibrio cholerae and cholera: out of the water and into the host. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26:125139.
166. Richards, G. P. 1988. Microbial purification of shell-fish: a review of depuration and relaying. J. Food Prot. 51:218251.
167. Robach, M. C., and, C. S. Hickey. 1978. Inhibition of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by sorbic acid in crab meat and flounder homogenates. J. Food Prot. 41:699702.
168. Rodrick, G. E.,, K. R. Schneider,, F. A. Steslow,, N. J. Blake, and, W. S. Otwell. 1988. Uptake, fate and ultraviolet depuration of vibrios in Mercenaria campechiensis. Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 23:2126.
169. Rosche, T. M.,, Y. Yano, and, J. D. Oliver. 2005. A rapid and simple PCR analysis indicates there are two subgroups of Vibrio vulnificus which correlate with clinical or environmental isolation. Microbiol. Immunol. 49:381389.
170. Rosche, T. M.,, B. Smith, and, J. D. Oliver. 2006. Evidence for an intermediate colony morphology of Vibrio vulnificus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:43564359.
171. Sakazaki, R.,, K. Tamura,, T. Kato,, Y. Obara,, S. Yamai, and, K. Hobo. 1968. Studies on the enteropathogenic, facultatively halophilic bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus. III. Enteropathogenicity. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 21:325331.
172. Sang, F. C.,, M. E. Hugh-Jones, and, H. V. Hagstad. 1987. Viability of Vibrio cholerae O1 on frog legs under frozen and refrigerated conditions and low dose radiation treatment. J. Food Prot. 50:662664.
173. Sanyal, S. C., and, P. C. Sen. 1974. Human volunteer study on the pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, p. 227230. In T. Fujino,, G. Sakaguchi,, R. Sakazaki, and, Y. Takeda (ed.), International Symposium on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Saikon Publishing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
174. Sears, C. L., and, J. B. Kaper. 1996. Enteric bacterial toxins: mechanisms of action and linkage to intestinal secretion. Microbiol. Rev. 60:167215.
175. Shandera, W. X.,, J. M. Johnston,, B. R. Davis, and, P. A. Blake. 1983. Disease from infection with Vibrio mimicus, a newly recognized Vibrio species. Ann. Intern. Med. 99:169171.
176. Shao, C.-P., and, L.-I. Hor. 2000. Metalloprotease is not essential for Vibrio vulnificus virulence in mice. Infect. Immun. 68:35693573.
177. Shapiro, R. L.,, S. Altekruse,, L. Hutwagner,, R. Bishop,, R. Hammond,, S. Wilson,, B. Ray,, S. Thompson,, R. V. Tauxe, and, P. M. Griffin. 1998. The role of Gulf Coast oysters harvested in warmer months in Vibrio vulnificus infections in the United States, 1988–1996. J. Infect. Dis. 178:752759.
178. Shinoda, S. 1999. Haemolysins of Vibrio cholerae and other Vibrio species, p. 373385. In J. E. Alouf and, J. H. Freer (ed.), The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
179. Shirai, H.,, H. Ito,, T. Kirayama,, Y. Nakamoto,, N. Nakabayashi,, K. Kumagni,, Y. Takeda, and, M. Nishibuchi. 1990. Molecular epidemiologic evidence for association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with gastroenteritis. Infect. Immun. 58:35683573.
180. Simonson, J. G.,, P. Danieu,, A. B. Zuppardo,, R. J. Siebeling,, R. L. Murphree, and, M. L. Tamplin. 1995. Distribution of capsular and lipopolysaccharide antigens among clinical and environmental Vibrio vulnificus isolates, abstr. B-286, p. 215. Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
181. Simpson, L. M.,, V. K. White,, S. F. Zane, and, J. D. Oliver. 1987. Correlation between virulence and colony morphology in Vibrio vulnificus. Infect. Immun. 55:269272.
182. Sloan, E. M.,, C. J. Hagen,, G. A. Lancette,, J. T. Peeler, and, J. N. Sofos. 1992. Comparison of five selective enrichment broths and two selective agars for recovery of Vibrio vulnificus from oysters. J. Food Prot. 55:356359.
183. Strom, M. S., and, R. N. Paranjpye. 2000. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus. Microb. Infect. 2:177188.
184. Sun, Y., and, J. D. Oliver. 1994. Effects of GRAS compounds on natural Vibrio vulnificus populations in oysters. J. Food Prot. 57:921923.
185. Sun, Y., and, J. D. Oliver. 1995. The value of CPC agar for the isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from oysters. J. Food Prot. 58:439440.
186. Takahashi, A.,, Y. Sato,, Y. Shiomi,, V. V. Cantarelli,, T. Iida,, M. Lee, and, T. Honda. 2000. Mechanisms of chloride secretion induced by thermostable direct haemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in human colonic tissue and a human intestinal epithelial cell line. J. Med. Microbiol. 49:801810.
187. Tamplin, M. L., and, G. M. Capers. 1992. Persistence of Vibrio vulnificus in tissues of Gulf Coast oysters, Crassostrea virginica, exposed to seawater disinfected with UV light. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:15061510.
188. Taylor, R. K.,, V. L. Miller,, D. B. Furlong, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 1987. Use of phoA gene fusions to identify a pilus colonization factor coordinately regulated with cholera toxin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:28332837.
189. Thompson, F. L.,, T. Iida, and, J. Swings. 2004. Biodiversity of vibrios. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:403431.
190. Todd, E. C. D. 1989. Preliminary estimates of costs of foodborne disease in the United States. J. Food Prot. 52:595601.
191. Trucksis, M.,, J. Michalski,, Y. K. Denk, and, J. B. Kaper. 1998. The Vibrio cholerae genome contains two unique circular chromosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:1446414469.
192. Trucksis, M.,, J. E. Galen,, J. Michalski,, A. Fasano, and, J. B. Kaper. 1993. Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace), the third toxin of a Vibrio cholerae virulence cassette. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:52675271.
193. Twedt, R. M. 1989. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, p. 543568. In M. P. Doyle (ed.), Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
194. Vanderzant, C., and, R. Nickelson. 1972. Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp tissue under various environmental conditions. Appl. Microbiol. 23:3437.
195. Vora, G. J.,, C. E. Meador,, M. M. Bird,, C. A. Bopp,, J. D. Andreadis, and, D. A. Stenger. 2005. Microarray-based detection of genetic heterogeneity, antimicrobial resistance, and the viable but nonculturable state in human pathogenic Vibrio spp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1910919114.
196. Vuddhakul, V.,, T. Nakai,, C. Matsumoto,, T. Oh,, T. Nishino,, C.-H. Chen,, M. Nishibuchi, and, J. Okuda. 2000. Analysis of gyrB and toxR gene sequences of Vibrio hollisae and development of gyrB- and toxR- targeted PCR methods for isolation of V. hollisae from the environment and its identification. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:35063514.
197. Warner, J. M., and, J. D. Oliver. 1999. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus and other Vibrio species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:11411144.
198. Watnick, P. I., and, R. Kolter. 1999. Steps in the development of a Vibrio cholerae El Tor biofilm. Mol. Microbiol. 34:586595.
199. Watnick, P. I.,, K. J. Fullner, and, R. Kolter. 1999. A role for the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin in biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae El Tor. J. Bacteriol. 181:36063609.
200. Williams, T. L.,, S. M. Musser,, J. L. Nordstrom,, A. DePaola, and, S. R. Monday. 2004. Identification of a protein bio-marker unique to the pandemic O3:K6 clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:16571665.
201. Wong, H.-C.,, S.-H. Ting, and, W.-R. Shieh. 1992. Incidence of toxigenic vibrios in foods available in Taiwan. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 73:197202.
202. Wong, H.-C.,, L.-L. Chen, and, C.-M. Yu. 1994. Survival of psychrotrophic Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in culture broth at low temperatures. J. Food Prot. 57:607610.
203. Wright, A. C.,, L. M. Simpson, and, J. D. Oliver. 1981. Role of iron in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus infections. Infect. Immun. 34:503507.
204. Wright,, A. C. J. L. Powell,, M. K. Tanner,, L. A. Ensor,, A. B. Karpas,, J. G. Morris, Jr., and, M. B. Sztein. 1999. Differential expression of Vibrio vulnificus capsular polysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 67:22502257.
205. Wu, Z.,, P. Nbom, and, K.-E. Magnusson. 2000. Distinct effects of Vibrio cholerae haemagglutinin/protease on the structure and localization of the tight junction-associated proteins occludin and ZO-1. Cell. Microbiol. 2:1117.
206. Yildiz, F. H.,, X. S. Liu,, A. Heydorn, and, G. K. Schoolnik. 2004. Molecular analysis of rugosity in a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor phase variant. Mol. Microbiol. 53:497515.
207. Yildiz, F. H., and, G. K. Schoolnik. 1999. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:40284033.
208. Zhang, X.-H., and, B. Austin. 2005. A review. Haemolysins in Vibrio species. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98:10111019.
209. Zhu, J.,, M. B. Miller,, R. E. Vance,, M. Dziejman,, B. L. Bassler, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2002. Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:31293134.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 16.1

Key differential characteristics of food-associated pathogenic species

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 16.2

Differentiation of the three biogroups of

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error