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Chapter 24 : Toxigenic Species

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Abstract:

species occur in foods as spoilage or biodeterioration fungi. The most important toxigenic species in foods are the aflatoxigenic molds, and , along with a recently described but much less common species, , all of which are classified in section . The most effective medium for rapid detection of aflatoxigenic molds is and parasiticus agar, a medium formulated specifically for this purpose. The combination of characteristics most useful in differentiation among the three aflatoxigenic species is summarized. is widely distributed in nature, but is probably less widespread, determination of the actual extent of its occurrence being complicated by the tendency for both species to be reported indiscriminately as . Aflatoxins are one of the few mycotoxins covered by legislation. is the most commonly occurring species in what was known as the group by Raper and Fennell, now correctly known as section . is the most common member of the section , subgenus , and is easily recognizable by its large, blue-green clavate (club-shaped) heads. The genus is an ascomycete genus characterized by the formation of bright yellow cleistothecia, often enmeshed in yellow, orange, or red hyphae, overlayed by the gray-green (glaucous) heads of the anamorphic state. is one of the most important genera in the spoilage of foods and animal feeds, particularly in warm-temperate climates and the tropics.

Citation: Hocking A. 2007. Toxigenic Species, p 537-550. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch24

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Ochratoxin A
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Figure 24.1

Aflatoxigenic fungi. (A) head (magnification, ×215); (B) conidia (magnification, ×1,350); (C) young heads (magnification, ×215); (D) conidia (magnification, ×1,350).

Citation: Hocking A. 2007. Toxigenic Species, p 537-550. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.2
Figure 24.2

Some common mycotoxigenic species. (A) (magnification, ×540); (B) (magnification, ×540); (C) (magnification, ×540); (D) (magnification, ×540); (E) (magnification, ×215).

Citation: Hocking A. 2007. Toxigenic Species, p 537-550. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch24
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 24.1

Significant mycotoxins produced by species and their toxic effects

Citation: Hocking A. 2007. Toxigenic Species, p 537-550. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.2

Distinguishing features of , , and

Citation: Hocking A. 2007. Toxigenic Species, p 537-550. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch24

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