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Chapter 26 : Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia

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Abstract:

Toxigenic molds in genera other than and are most often found as contaminants of plant-derived foods, especially cereal grains. The most important group of mycotoxigenic molds other than and species are species of the genus . A very severe human disease that occurred in the former Soviet Union during World War II, known as alimentary toxic aleukia, is believed to be caused by T-2 and HT-2 toxins produced by and of the section of . Dietary deoxynivalenol has been shown to stimulate immunoglobin production, causing elevated immunoglobin A levels in mice. Among the harmful effects of this stimulation is kidney damage very similar to a common human kidney condition known as glomerulonephritis or immunoglobulin A nephropathy. The most distinctive feature of is its production of abundant globose to oval, almost pyriform (pear-shaped) microconidia, with few macroconidia. The major mycotoxins produced by are deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The main human disease associated with is esophageal cancer. The first problem encountered in the analysis of grains for toxins is the same as that for other mycotoxins, i.e., sampling. Deoxynivalenol is the most common trichothecene found in commodity grains; therefore, the greatest potential exists for it to occur in finished foods. Other potentially toxic molds, aside from , , and species, that may contaminate foods include species of the genera , , , , , , , , , , and .

Citation: Bullerman L. 2007. Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia, p 563-578. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch26

Key Concept Ranking

Food Microbiology
0.65230525
Fusarium graminearum
0.52610445
Fusarium fujikuroi
0.5240964
Fusarium verticillioides
0.5240964
Fusarium fujikuroi
0.5240964
0.65230525
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Figures

Image of Figure 26.1
Figure 26.1

(A) Examples of macroconidia of species. (a) ; (b) ; (c) ; (d) Magnification, ×1,000. (B) Examples of micro-and macroscopic structures of (a) Microconidia; (b) monophialides; (c) sporodochia; (d) chlamydospores. Magnification, ×1,000 (a, b, and d) and ×10 (c).

Citation: Bullerman L. 2007. Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia, p 563-578. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch26
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Image of Figure 26.2a
Figure 26.2a

Microscopic structures. (A) (a) Macroconidia; (b) chlamydospores; (c) phialides; (d) microconidia. Magnification, ×1,000 (a, b, and d) and ×550 (c). (B) (a) Conidiophores (monophialides); (b) monophialides in sporodochia; (c) macroconidia; (d) chlamydospores. Magnification, ×1,000 (a, c, and d) and ×550 (b). (C) (a) Microconidia in chains; (b) microconidia; (c) monophialides producing microconidia; (d) macroconidia. Magnification, ×165 (a), ×550 (b), and ×1,000 (c and d). (D) (a) Microconidia in chains; (b) microconidia; (c) polyphialides; (d) macroconidia. Magnification, ×165 (a), and ×1,000 (b, c, and d).

Citation: Bullerman L. 2007. Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia, p 563-578. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch26
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Image of Figure 26.2b
Figure 26.2b

Microscopic structures. (A) (a) Macroconidia; (b) chlamydospores; (c) phialides; (d) microconidia. Magnification, ×1,000 (a, b, and d) and ×550 (c). (B) (a) Conidiophores (monophialides); (b) monophialides in sporodochia; (c) macroconidia; (d) chlamydospores. Magnification, ×1,000 (a, c, and d) and ×550 (b). (C) (a) Microconidia in chains; (b) microconidia; (c) monophialides producing microconidia; (d) macroconidia. Magnification, ×165 (a), ×550 (b), and ×1,000 (c and d). (D) (a) Microconidia in chains; (b) microconidia; (c) polyphialides; (d) macroconidia. Magnification, ×165 (a), and ×1,000 (b, c, and d).

Citation: Bullerman L. 2007. Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia, p 563-578. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch26
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Tables

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Table 26.1

Human diseases which have been associated with species and toxins

Citation: Bullerman L. 2007. Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia, p 563-578. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch26
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Table 26.2

Major mycotoxins that may be produced by species of importance in cereal grains and grain-based foods

Citation: Bullerman L. 2007. Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia, p 563-578. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch26
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Table 26.3

Mating populations of section of the genus , with corresponding anamorphic and teleomorphic names

Citation: Bullerman L. 2007. Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia, p 563-578. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch26

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