Chapter 27 : Foodborne Viral Pathogens

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Foodborne Viral Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap27-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap27-2.gif


Human enteric viruses have properties that are unique from those of bacterial foodborne pathogens. From an epidemiologic perspective, the noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the two most important enteric virus groups transmitted by foodborne routes. Human isolates of HAV comprise a single serotype, and monoclonal antibodies raised to different isolates fail to distinguish the isolates from one another. The rotaviruses usually are transmitted by either waterborne or person-to-person routes, but they can be food borne. This virus group is the leading cause of infantile diarrhea worldwide and is responsible for up to 130 million illnesses and 600,000 to 870,000 deaths per year, with the vast majority of rotavirus associated deaths occurring in developing countries. The contamination of produce items usually occurs before the product reaches food service establishments. The most commonly implicated bivalves are oysters, followed by clams, and it is now estimated that human enteric viruses are the most common disease agents transmitted by molluscan shellfish. Adherence to strict hygienic practices when handling and preparing foods is critical to control viral contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) food products. A potential control strategy, albeit in developmental stages, would be the detection of viral contamination in foods. Improved and more widespread reporting and investigation of foodborne viral disease outbreaks, and targeted epidemiologic studies to identify the risk factors for viral gastroenteritis, would improve the understanding of attribution.

Citation: D’Souza D, Moe C, Jaykus L. 2007. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 581-607. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch27

Key Concept Ranking

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 27.1
Figure 27.1

Norwalk virus genome organization (adapted from Green et al. [ ] with permission). VPg, genome-linked virion protein. ORF1 encodes polyprotein posttranslationally cleaved into nonstructural proteins helicase, with a predicted nucleoside triphosphate-binding domain (NTPase); proteinase (Pro); and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol). ORF2 encodes capsid protein, which is translated into major and minor structural proteins which consist of shell and protruding domains. N, NH-terminal arm; S, shell. ORF3 encodes a basic protein of unknown function.

Citation: D’Souza D, Moe C, Jaykus L. 2007. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 581-607. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 27.2
Figure 27.2

HAV genome organization (adapted from Hollinger and Emerson [ ] with permission). 5′ untranslated region (624 to 1,199 nt long); VPg, genome-linked virion protein, 22 to 24 amino acids. The single open reading frame encodes polyprotein posttrans- lationally cleaved into VP1, VP2, and VP3, which form the capsid; VP4 is the inner surface capsid protein. 2A, unknown function; 2B, RNA synthesis and cell membrane permeability; 2C, RNA replication; 3A and 3B, RNA replication proteins, cofactor for 3D; 3C, viral proteinases; 3D, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Poly (A) tail, about 35 to 100 nt long. 3′ UTR, 3′ UTR, 5′ untranslated region (47 to 125 nt long).

Citation: D’Souza D, Moe C, Jaykus L. 2007. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 581-607. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 27.3
Figure 27.3

Transmission routes of foodborne viruses.

Citation: D’Souza D, Moe C, Jaykus L. 2007. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 581-607. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 27.4
Figure 27.4

Representative processing scheme for the concentration of viruses from complex food matrices (modification of method reported by Leggitt and Jaykus [ ]). PEG, polyethylene glycol.

Citation: D’Souza D, Moe C, Jaykus L. 2007. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 581-607. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pinto, and, A. Bosch. 1994. Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:37043710.
2. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pinto,, R. Gajardo, and, A. Bosch. 1997. Viruses in mussels: public health implications and depuration. J. Food Prot. 60:677681.
3. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pinto, and, A. Bosch. 1997. Disinfection of human enteric viruses on fomites. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:107111.
4. Abd El Galil, K. H.,, M. A. El Sokkary,, S. M. Kheira,, A. M. Salazar,, M. V. Yates,, W. Chen, and, A. Mulchandani. 2004. Combined immunomagnetic separation-molecular beacon-reverse-transcription-PCR assay for detection of hepatitis A virus from environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:43714374.
5. Agus, S. G.,, R. Dolin,, R. G. Wyatt,, A. J. Tousimis, and, R. S. Northup. 1973. Acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis: intestinal histopathology. Histologic and enzymatic alternations during illness produced by the Norwalk agent in man. Ann. Intern. Med. 79:1825.
6. Allwood, P. B.,, Y. S. Malik,, C. W. Hedberg, and, S. M. Goyal. 2003. Survival of F-specific RNA coliphage, feline calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in water: a comparative study. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:57075710.
7. Ambert-Balay,, K. F. Bon,, F. Le Guyader,, P. Pothier, and, E. Kohli. 2005. Characterization of new recombinant noroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:51795186
8. Amon, J. J.,, R. Devasia,, G. Xia,, O. V. Nainan,, S. Hall,, B. Lawson,, J. S. Wolthuis,, P. D. M. MacDonald,, C. W. Shepard,, I. T. Williams,, G. L. Armstrong,, J. A. Gabel,, P. Erwin,, L. Sheeler,, W. Kuhnert,, P. Patel,, G. Vaughan,, A. Weltman,, A. S. Craig,, B. P. Bell, and, A. Fiore. 2005. Molecular epidemiology of foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States, 2003. J. Infect. Dis. 192:13231330.
9. Anderson, A. D.,, V. D. Garrett,, J. Sobel,, S. S. Monroe,, R. L. Fankhauser,, K. J. Schwab,, J. S. Bresee,, P. S. Mead,, C. Higgins,, J. Campana, and, R. Glass. 2001. Multistate outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis associated with a common caterer. Am. J. Epidemiol. 154:10131019.
10. Ando, T.,, S. S. Monroe,, J. R. Gentsch,, Q. Jin,, D. C. Lewis, and, R. I. Glass. 1995. Detection and differentiation of antigenically distinct small round-structured viruses (Norwalk-like viruses) by reverse transcription-PCR and Southern hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:6471.
11. Ansari, S. A.,, S. A. Sattar,, V. S. Springthorpe,, G. A. Wells, and, W. Tostowaryk. 1988. Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to animate and nonporous inanimate surfaces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:15131518.
12. Ansari, S. A.,, S. A. Sattar,, V. S. Springthorpe,, G. A. Wells, and, W. Tostowaryk. 1989. In vivo protocol for testing efficacy of hand-washing agents against viruses and bacteria: experiments with rotavirus and Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:31133118.
13. Appleton, H. 1994. Norwalk virus and the small round viruses causing foodborne gastroenteritis, p. 5779. In Y. H. Hui,, J. R. Gorham,, K. D. Murrell, and, D. O. Cliver (ed.), Foodborne Disease Handbook, vol. 2. Diseases Caused by Viruses, Parasites, and Fungi. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
14. Appleton, H., and, M. S. Pereira. 1977. A possible virus aetiology in outbreaks of food poisoning from cockles. Lancet i(8015): 780781.
15. Arauz-Ruiz, P.,, L. Sundqvist,, Z. Garcia,, L. Taylor,, K. Visona,, H. Norder, and, L. O. Magnius. 2001. Presumed common source outbreaks of hepatitis A in an endemic area confirmed by limited sequencing within the VP1 region. J. Med. Virol. 65:449456.
16. Arnal, C.,, V. Ferre-Aubineau,, B. Besse,, B. Mignotte,, L. Schwartzbrod, and, S. Billaudel. 1999. Comparison of 7 RNA extraction methods on stool and shellfish samples prior to hepatitis A virus amplification. J. Virol. Methods 77:1726.
17. Asanaka, M.,, R. L. Atmar,, V. Ruvolo,, S. E. Crawford,, F. H. Neill, and, M. K. Estes. 2005. Replication and packaging of Norwalk virus RNA in cultured mammalian cells. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1032710332.
18. Asher, L. V.,, L. N. Binn, T. L. Mensing,, R. H. Marchwicki,, R. A. Vassell, and, G. D. Young. 1995. Pathogenesis of hepatitis A in orally inoculated owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). J. Med. Virol. 47:260268.
19. Atmar, R. L.,, F. H. Neill,, C. M. Woodley,, R. Manger,, G. S. Fout,, W. Burkhardt,, L. Leja,, E. R. McGovern,, F. LeGuyader,, T. G. Metcalf, and, M. K. Estes. 1996. Collaborative evaluation of a method for the detection of Norwalk virus in shellfish tissues by PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:254258.
20. Atmar, R. L.,, F. H. Neill,, J. L. Romalde,, F. Le Guyader,, C. M. Woodley,, T. G. Metcalf, and, M. K. Estes. 1995. Detection of Norwalk virus and hepatitis A virus in shellfish tissues with the PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:30143018.
21. Bean, N. H.,, J. S. Goulding,, M. T. Daniels, and, F. J. Angulo. 1997. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks—United States, 1988–1992. J. Food Prot. 60:12651286.
22. Becker, K. M.,, C. L. Moe,, K. L. Southwick, and, J. N. MacCormack. 2000. Transmission of Norwalk virus during a football game. N. Engl. J. Med. 343:12231227.
23. Berg, D. E.,, M. A. Kohn,, T. A. Farley, and, L. M. McFarland. 2000. Multistate outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis traced to fecal-contaminated oysters harvested in Louisiana. J. Infect. Dis. 181(Suppl. 2): S381S386.
24. Beuret, C. 2004. Simultaneous detection of enteric viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 115:18.
25. Beuret, C.,, A. Baumgartner, and, J. Schluep. 2003. Virus-contaminated oysters: a three-month monitoring of oysters imported to Switzerland. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:22922297.
26. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber, and, S. A. Sattar. 2000. Rapid concentration of detection of hepatitis A virus from lettuce and strawberries. J. Virol. Methods 88:175185.
27. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber, and, S. A. Sattar. 2000. Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:27592763.
28. Bidawid, S.,, N. Malik,, O. Adegbunrin,, S. A. Sattar, and, J. M. Farber. 2004. Norovirus cross-contamination during food handling and interruption of virus transfer by hand antisepsis: experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate. J. Food Prot. 67:103109.
29. Bresee, J. S.,, M. A. Widdowson,, S. S. Monroe, and, R. I. Glass. 2002. Foodborne viral gastroenteritis: challenges and opportunities. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:748753.
30. Calder, L.,, G. Simmons,, C. Thornley,, P. Taylor,, K. Pritchard,, G. Greening, and, J. Bishop. 2003. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with consumption of raw blueberries. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:745751.
31. Carrique-Mas, J.,, Y. Andersson,, B. Petersen,, K.-O. Hedlund,, N. Sjogren, and, J. Giesecke. 2003. A Norwalk-like virus waterborne community outbreak in a Swedish village during peak holiday season. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:737744.
32. Caul, E. O. 1994. Small round structured viruses: airborne transmission and hospital control. Lancet 343:12401241.
33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with noroviruses on cruise ships—United States, 2002. JAMA 289:167169.
34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant—Monaca, Pennsylvania. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:15.
35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among children aged 24–35 months—United States, 2003. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54:141l44.
36. Chadwick, P. R.,, G. Beards,, D. Brown,, E. O. Caul,, J. Cheesbrough,, I. Clarke,, A. Curry,, S. O’Brien,, K. Quigley,, J. Sellwood, and, D. Westmoreland. 2000. Management of hospital outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to small round structured viruses. J. Hosp. Infect. 45:110.
37. Chalmers, J. W. T., and, J. H. McMillan. 1995. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with adequately prepared oysters. Epidemiol. Infect. 115:163167.
38. Cheesbrough, J. S.,, J. Green,, C. I. Gallimore,, P. A. Wright, and, D. W. G. Brown. 2000. Widespread environmental contamination with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) detected in a prolonged hotel outbreak of gastroenteritis. Epidemiol. Infect. 125:9398.
39. Chung, H.,, L. Jaykus,, G. Loveleace, and, M. D. Sobsey. 1998. Bacteriophages and bacteria as indicators of enteric viruses in oysters and their harvest waters. Water Sci. Technol. 38:3744.
40. Clarke, I. N., and, P. R. Lambden. 2000. Organization and expression of calicivirus genes. J. Infect. Dis. 181(Suppl. 2): S309S316.
41. Cliver, D. O. 1997. Virus transmission via food. Food Technol. 51(4): 7178.
42. Cliver, D. O. 2001. Foodborne viruses, p. 501513. In M. P. Doyle,, L. R. Beuchat, and, T. J. Montville (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
43. Cliver, D. O., and, S. M. Matsui. 2002. Viruses, p. 161175. In D. O. Cliver and, H. P. Reimann (ed.), Foodborne Diseases, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
44. Committee on Infectious Diseases. 1991. Hepatitis A, p. 234237. In G. Peter (ed.), Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, Ill.
45. Cook, D. W., and, R. D. Ellender. 1986. Relaying to decrease the concentration of oyster-associated pathogens. J. Food Prot. 49:196202.
46. Costa-Mattioli, M.,, S. Monpoeho,, E. Nicand,, M.-H. Aleman,, S. Billaudel, and, V. Ferré. 2002. Quantification and duration of viraemia during hepatitis A infection as determined by real-time RT-PCR. J. Viral Hepat. 9:101106.
47. Croci, L.,, D. De Medici,, G. Morace,, A. Fiore,, C. Scalfaro,, F. Beneduce, and, L. Toti. 2002. The survival of hepatitis A virus in fresh produce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 73:2934.
48. Croci, L.,, M. Ciccozzi,, D. De Medici,, S. Di Pasquale,, A. Fiore,, A. Mele, and, L. Toti. 1999. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus in heat-treated mussels. J. Appl. Microbiol. 87:884888.
49. Cromeans, T.,, O. V. Nainan,, H. A. Fields,, M. O. Favorov, and, H. S. Margolis. 1994. Hepatitis A and E viruses, p. 156. In Y. H. Hui,, J. R. Gorham,, K. D. Murrell, and, D. O. Cliver (ed.), Foodborne Disease Handbook, vol. 2. Diseases Caused by Viruses, Parasites, and Fungi. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
50. Cuthbert, J. A. 2002. Hepatitis A: old and new. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:3858.
51. Daniels, N. A.,, D. A. Bergmire-Sweat,, K. J. Schwab,, K. A. Hendricks,, S. Reddy,, S. M. Rowe,, R. L. Fankhauser,, S. S. Monroe,, R. L. Atmar,, R. I. Glass, and, P. Mead. 2000. A foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses: first molecular traceback to deli sandwiches contaminated during preparation. J. Infect. Dis. 181:14671470.
52. De Leon, R., and, C. P. Gerba. 1990. Viral disease transmission by seafood, p. 639662. In J. O. Nriagu and, M. S. Simmons (ed.), Food Contamination from Environmental Sources. Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.
53. De Leon, R.,, S. M. Matsui,, R. S. Baric,, J. E. Herrmann,, N. R. Blacklow,, H. B. Greenberg, and, M. D. Sobsey. 1992. Detection of Norwalk virus in stool specimens by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and nonradioactive oligoprobes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:31513157.
54. Deng, M. Y.,, S. P. Day, and, D. O. Cliver. 1994. Detection of hepatitis A virus in environmental samples by antigen-capture PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:19271933.
55. Dentinger, C. M.,, W. A. Bower,, O. V. Nainan,, S. M. Cotter,, G. Myers,, L. M. Dubusky,, S. Fowler,, E. D. Salehi, and, B. P. Bell. 2001. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. J. Infect. Dis. 183:12731276.
56. Desselberger, U. 2000. Rotaviruses: methods and protocols, p. 18. In J. Gray and, U. Desselberger (ed.), Methods in Molecular Medicine, vol. 34. Humana Press, Totowa, N.J.
57. DiPinto, A.,, V. T. Forte,, G. M. Tantillo,, V. Terio, and, C. Buonavoglia. 2003. Detection of hepatitis A virus in shell-fish (Mytilus galloprovincialis) with RT-PCR. J. Food Prot. 66:16811685.
58. Divizia, M.,, R. Gabrielli,, A. Macaluso,, B. Bagnato,, L. Palombi,, E. Buonomo,, F. Cenko,, L. Leno,, S. Bino,, A. Basha, and, A. Pana. 2005. Nucleotide correlation between HAV isolates from human patients and environmental samples. J. Med. Virol. 75:812.
59. Dolin, R.,, N. R. Blacklow,, H. DuPont,, R. F. Buscho,, R. G. Wyatt,, J. A. Kasel,, R. Hornick, and, R. M. Chanock. 1972. Biological properties of Norwalk agent of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140:578583.
60. Dore, W. J., and, D. N. Lees. 1995. Behavior of Escherichia coli and male-specific bacteriophage in environmentally contaminated bivalve mollusks before and after depuration. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:28302834.
61. Dore, W. J.,, K. Henshilwood, and, D. N. Lees. 2000. Evaluation of F-specific RNA bacteriophage as a candidate human enteric virus indicator for bivalve molluscan shell-fish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:12801285.
62. Dore, W. J.,, M. Mackie, and, D. N. Lees. 2003. Levels of male-specific RNA bacteriophage and Escherichia coli in molluscan bivalve shellfish from commercial harvesting areas. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 36:9296.
63. Doultree, J. C.,, J. D. Druce,, C. J. Birch,, D. S. Bowden, and, J. A. Marshall. 1999. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J. Hosp. Infect. 41:5157.
64. D’Souza, D. H., and, L. Jaykus. 2006. Molecular approaches for the detection of foodborne viral pathogens, p. 91117. In J. Maurer (ed.), PCR Methods for Food Microbiology. Springer Science, New York, N.Y.
65. D’Souza, D. H.,, J. Jean, and, L. Jaykus. 2006. Methods for detection of viral and parasitic pathogens in food, p. 188-1188-23. In Y. H. Hui (ed.), Handbook of Food Science, Technology and Engineering, vol. 4. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
66. Duizer, E.,, P. Bijkerk,, B. Rockx,, A. de Groot,, F. Twisk, and, M. Koopmans. 2004. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:45384543.
67. Fankhauser, R. L.,, S. S. Monroe,, J. S. Noel,, C. D. Humphrey,, J. S. Bresee,, U. D. Parashar,, T. Ando, and, R. I. Glass. 2002. Epidemiologic and molecular trends of the “Norwalk-like viruses” associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 186:17.
68. Feinstone, S. M. 1996. Hepatitis A: epidemiology and prevention. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 8:300305.
69. Fiore, A. E. 2004. Hepatitis A transmitted by food. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:705715.
70. Fleet, G. H.,, P. Heiskanen,, I. Reid, and, K. A. Buckle. 2000. Foodborne viral illness—status in Australia. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 59:127136.
71. Formiga-Cruz, M.,, G. Tofino-Quesada,, S. Bofill-Mas,, D. N. Lees,, K. Henshilwood,, A. K. Allard,, A.-C. Conden-Hansson,, B. E. Hernroth,, A. Vantarakis,, A. Tsibouxi,, M. Papapetropoulou,, M. D. Furones, and, R. Girones. 2002. Distribution of human virus contamination in shellfish from different growing areas in Greece, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:59905998.
72. Formiga-Cruz, M.,, A. K. Allard,, A. C. Conden-Hansson,, K. Henshilwood,, B. E. Hernroth,, J. Jofre,, D. N. Lees,, F. Lucena,, M. Papapetropoulou,, R. E. Rangdale,, A. Tsibouxi,, A. Vantarakis, and, R. Girones. 2003. Evaluation of potential indicators of viral contamination in shellfish and their applicability to diverse geographical areas. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:15561563.
73. Friedman, D. S.,, D. Heisey-Grove,, F. Argyros,, E. Berl,, J. Nsubuga,, T. Stiles,, J. Fontana,, R. S. Beard,, A. Moneow,, M. E. McGrath,, H. Sutherby,, R. C. Dicker,, A. DeMaria, and, B. T. Matyas. 2005. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with wedding cakes. Epidemiol. Infect. 133:10571063.
74. Gallimore, C. I.,, D. Cubitt,, N. du Plessis, and, J. J. Gray. 2004. Asymptomatic and symptomatic excretion of noro-viruses during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J.Clin. Microbiol. 42:22712274.
75. Gaulin, C.,, M. Frigon,, D. Poirier, and, C. Fournier. 1999. Transmission of calicivirus by a foodhandler in the presymptomatic phase of illness. Epidemiol. Infect. 123:475478.
76. Gehrke, C.,, J. Steinmann, and, P. Goroncy-Bermes. 2004. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate of norovirus (formerly Norwalk-like viruses), by different types of alcohol in vitro and in vivo. J. Hosp. Infect. 56:4955.
77. Gerba, C. P.,, D. M. Gramos, and, N. Nwachuku. 2002. Comparative inactivation of enteroviruses and adenovirus 2 by UV light. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:51675169.
78. Goswami, B. B.,, M. Kulka,, D. Ngo,, P. Istafanos, and, T. A. Cebula. 2002. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for the detection of hepatitis A virus in produce and shell-fish. J. Food Prot. 65:393402.
79. Gouvea, V.,, N. Santos,, M. Carmo-Timenetsky, and, M. K. Estes. 1994. Identification of Norwalk virus in artificially seeded shellfish and selected foods. J. Virol. Methods 48:177187.
80. Graham, D. Y.,, X. Jiang,, T. Tanaka,, A. R. Opekun,, H. P. Madore, and, M. K. Estes. 1994. Norwalk virus infection of volunteers: new insights based on improved assays. J. Infect. Dis. 170:3443.
81. Green, J.,, C. I. Gallimore,, J. P. Norcott,, D. Lewis, and, D. W. G. Brown. 1995. Broadly reactive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the diagnosis of SRSV-associated gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 47:392398.
82. Green, J.,, K. Henshilwood,, C. I. Gallimore,, D. W. G. Brown, and, D. N. Lees. 1998. A nested reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of small round-structured viruses in environmentally contaminated molluscan shell-fish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:858863.
83. Green, J.,, P. A. Wright,, C. I. Gallimore,, O. Mitchell,, P. Morgan-Capner, and, D. W. G. Brown. 1998. The role of environmental contamination with small round structured viruses in a hospital outbreak investigated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. J. Hosp. Infect. 39:3945.
84. Green, K. Y.,, R. M. Chanock, and, A. Z. Kapikian. 2001. Human caliciviruses, p. 841874. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology. Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
85. Green, S. M.,, P. R. Lambden,, O. Caul, and, I. N. Clarke. 1997. Capsid sequence diversity in small structured viruses from recent UK outbreaks of gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 52:1419.
86. Greene, S. R.,, C. L. Moe,, L.-A. Jaykus,, M. Cronin,, L. Grosso, and, P. van Aarle. 2003. Evaluation of the Nucli-Sens Basic Kit assay for the detection of Norwalk virus RNA in stool specimens. J. Virol. Methods 108:123131.
87. Gulati, B. R.,, P. B. Allwood,, C. W. Hedberg, and, S. M. Goyal. 2001. Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a food-contact surface. J. Food Prot. 64:14301434.
88. Guzewich, J., and, M. P. Ross. 6 Oct. 1999, revision date. Evaluation of Risks Related to Microbiological Contamination of Ready-to-Eat Foods by Food Preparation Workers and the Effectiveness of Interventions to Minimize Those Risks. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/∼ear/rterisk.html.
89. Hafliger, D.,, M. Gilgen,, J. Luthy, and, P. Hubner. 1997. Seminested RT-PCR systems for small round-structured viruses in faecal specimens. J. Virol. Methods 57:195201.
90. Hale, A. D.,, J. Green, and, D. W. G. Brown. 1996. Comparison of 4 RNA extraction methods for the detection of small round structured viruses in faecal specimens. J. Virol. Methods 57:195201.
91. Halliday, M. L.,, L. Y. Kang,, T. K. Zhou,, M. D. Hu,, Q. C. Pan,, T. Y. Fu,, Y. S. Huang, and, S. L. Hu. 1991. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J. Infect. Dis. 164:852859.
92. Harrington, P. R.,, L. Lindesmith,, B. Yount,, C. L. Moe,, J. LePendu, and, R. S. Baric. 2003. Norovirus attachment, susceptibility and vaccine design. Recent Res. Dev. Virol. 5:1944.
93. Harrington, P. R.,, L. Lindesmith,, B. Yount,, C. L. Moe, and, R. S. Baric. 2002. Binding of Norwalk virus-like particles to ABH histo-blood group antigens is blocked by antisera from infected human volunteers or experimentally vaccinated mice. J. Virol. 76:1233512343.
94. Hejkal, T. W.,, F. M. Wellings,, P. A. Larock, and, A. L. Lewis. 1979. Survival of poliovirus within organic solids during chlorination. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38:114118.
95. Hewitt, J., and, G. E. Greening. 2004. Survival and persistence of norovirus, hepatitis A virus, and feline calicivirus in marinated mussels. J. Food Prot. 67:17431750.
96. Hofmann, F.,, G. Wehrle,, H. Berthold, and, D. Koster. 1992. Hepatitis A as an occupational hazard. Vaccine 10:8284.
97. Hollinger, F. B., and, J. R. Ticehurst. 1996. Hepatitis A virus, p. 735774. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, M. Chanock,, J. L. Melnick, and, T. P. Monath (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
98. Hollinger, F. B., and, S. U. Emerson. 2001. Hepatitis A virus, p. 799840. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology. Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
99. Huang, P.,, T. Farkas,, S. Marionneau,, W. Zhong,, N. Ruvoen-Clouet,, A. L. Morrow,, M. Altaye,, L. K. Pickering,, D. S. Newburg,, J. LePendu, and, X. Jiang. 2003. Noroviruses bind to human ABO, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group antigens: identification of 4 distinct strain-specific patterns. J. Infect. Dis. 188:1931.
100. Hutin, Y. J.,, V. Pool,, E. H. Cramer,, O. V. Nainan,, J. Weth,, I. T. Williams,, S. T. Goldstein,, K. F. Gensheimer,, B. P. Bell,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. J. Alter, and, H. S. Margolis. 1999. A multistate foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:595601.
101. Hutson, A. M.,, R. L. Atmar,, D. Y. Graham, and, M. K. Estes. 2002. Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type. J. Infect. Dis. 185:13351337.
102. Isakbaeva, E. T.,, M.-A. Widdowson,, R. S. Beard,, S. N. Bulens,, J. Mullins,, S. S. Monroe,, J. Bresee,, P. Sassano,, E. H. Cramer, and, R. I. Glass. 2005. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:154158.
103. Jansen, R. W.,, G. Siegl, and, S. M. Lemon. 1990. Molecular epidemiology of human hepatitis A virus defined by antigen-capture polymerase chain reaction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:28672871.
104. Jaykus, L. 2000. Detection of human enteric viruses in foods, p. 137163. In S. Sattar (ed.), Foodborne Diseases Handbook, 2nd ed., vol. 2. Viruses, Parasites, Pathogens and HACCP. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
105. Jaykus, L. A.,, M. T. Hemard, and, M. D. Sobsey. 1994. Human enteric pathogenic viruses, p. 92153. In C. R. Hackney and, M. D. Pierson (ed.). Environmental Indicators and Shellfish Safety. Chapman and Hall, New York, N.Y.
106. Jaykus, L. A.,, R. De Leon, and, M. D. Sobsey. 1996. A virion concentration method for detection of human enteric viruses in oysters by PCR and oligoprobe hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:20742080.
107. Jean, J.,, B. Blais,, A. Darveau, and, I. Fliss. 2002. Simultaneous detection and identification of hepatitis A virus and rotavirus by multiplex Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (NASBA) and microtiter plate hybridization system. J. Virol. Methods 105:123132.
108. Jean, J.,, D. H. D’Souza, and, L. Jaykus. 2004. Multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) for the simultaneous detection of enteric viruses in ready-to-eat food. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:66036610.
109. Jean, J.,, J.-F. Vachon,, O. Moroni,, A. Darveau,, I. Kukavica-Ibrulj, and, I. Fliss. 2003. Effectiveness of commercial disinfectants for inactivating hepatitis A virus on agri-food surfaces. J. Food Prot. 66:115119.
110. Johnson, P. C.,, J. J. Mathewson,, H. L. DuPont, and, H. B. Greenberg. 1990. Multiple-challenge study of host susceptibility to Norwalk gastroenteritis in US adults. J. Infect. Dis. 161:1821.
111. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, B. H. Robertso,, X. J. Meng, and, V. R. Hill. 2006. A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus. J. Virol. Methods 131:6571.
112. Jothikumar, N.,, J. A. Lowther,, K. Henshilwood,, D. N. Lees,, V. R. Hill, and, J. Vinje. 2005. Rapid and sensitive detection of noroviruses by using TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription-PCR assays and application to naturally contaminated shellfish samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:18701875.
113. Kampf, G.,, D. Grotheer, and, J. Steinmann. 2005. Efficacy of three ethanol-based hand rubs against feline calicivirus, a surrogate virus for norovirus. J. Hosp. Infect. 60:140149.
114. Kapikian, A. Z.,, M. K. Estes, and, R. M. Chanock. 1996. Norwalk group of viruses, p. 783810. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, M. Chanock,, J. L. Melnick, and, T. P. Monath (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
115. Keswick, B.,, L. K. Pickering,, H. L. DuPont, and, W. E. Woodward. 1983. Survival and detection of rotaviruses on environmental surfaces in day care centers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:813816.
116. Kingsley, D. H., and, G. P. Richards. 2001. Rapid and efficient extraction method for reverse transcription-PCR detection of hepatitis A and Norwalk-like viruses in shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:41524157.
117. Kingsley, D. H., and, G. P. Richards. 2003. Persistence of hepatitis A virus in oysters. J. Food Prot. 66:331334.
118. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. G. Hoover,, E. Papafragkou, and, G. P. Richards. 2002. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a calicivirus by high hydrostatic pressure. J. Food Prot. 65:16051609.
119. Kobayashi, S.,, K. Natori,, N. Takeda, and, K. Sakae. 2004. Immunomagnetic capture RT-PCR for detection of noro-virus from foods implicated in a foodborne outbreak. Microbiol. Immunol. 48:201204.
120. Koff, R. S., and, H. S. Sear. 1967. Internal temperature of steamed clams. N. Engl. J. Med. 276:737739.
121. Kohn, M. A.,, T. A. Farley,, T. Ando,, M. Curtis,, S. A. Wilson,, Q. Jin,, S. S. Monroe,, R. C. Baron,, L. M. McFarland, and, R. I. Glass. 1995. An outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis associated with eating raw oysters. JAMA 273:466471.
122. Kojima, S.,, T. Kageyama,, S. Fukushi,, F. B. Hoshino,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, K. Natori,, N. Takeda, and, K. Katayama. 2002. Genogroup-specific PCR primers for detection of Norwalk-like viruses. J. Virol. Methods 100:107114.
123. Koopmans, M., and, E. Duizer. 2004. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90:2341.
124. Kurdziel, A. S.,, N. Wilkinson,, S. Langton, and, N. Cook. 2001. Survival of poliovirus on soft fruit and salad vegetables. J. Food Prot. 64:706709.
125. Lees, D. 2000. Viruses and bivalve shellfish. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 59:81116.
126. Lees, D. N.,, K. Henshilwood,, J. Green,, C. I. Gallimore, and, D. W. Brown. 1995. Detection of small round-structured viruses in shellfish by reverse transcription-PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:44184424.
127. Leggitt, P. R., and, L.-A. Jaykus. 2000. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods. J. Food Prot. 63:17381744.
128. Legnani, P.,, E. Leoni,, D. Lev,, R. Rossi,, G. C. Villa, and, P. Bisbini. 1998. Distribution of indicator bacteria and bacteriophages in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85:790798.
129. LeGuyader, F.,, F. H. Neill,, M. K. Estes,, S. S. Monroe,, T. Ando, and, R. L. Atmar. 1996. Detection and analysis of a small round-structured virus strain in oysters implicated in an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:42684272.
130. LeGuyader, F.,, L. Haugarreau,, L. Miossec,, E. Dubois, and, M. Pommepuy. 2000. Three-year study to assess human enteric viruses in shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:32413248.
131. Lemon, S. M. 1997. Type A hepatitis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention. Clin. Chem. 43:14941499.
132. Lin, C. M.,, F. M. Wu,, H. K. Kim,, M. P. Doyle,, B. S. Michaels, and, L. K. Williams. 2003. A comparison of hand washing techniques to remove Escherichia coli and caliciviruses under natural and artificial fingernails. J. Food Prot. 66:22962301.
133. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, J. LePendu,, J. A. Frelinger,, J. Treanor, and, R. Baric. 2005. Cellular and humoral immunity following Snow Mountain Virus challenge. J. Virol. 79:29002909.
134. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, S. Marionneau,, N. Ruvoen,, X. Jiang,, J. Lindblad,, P. Stewart,, J. LePendu, and, R. Baric. 2003. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nat. Med. 9:548553.
135. Liu, B.,, P. Maywood,, L. Gupta, and, B. Campbell. 2003. An outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis in an aged-care residential hostel. N. S. W. Public Health Bull. 14:105109.
136. Lo, S. V.,, A. M. Connolly,, S. R. Palmer,, D. Wright,, P. D. Thomas, and, D. Joynson. 1994. The role of the presymptomatic food handler in a common source outbreak of food-borne SRSV gastroenteritis in a group of hospitals. Epidemiol. Infect. 113:513521.
137. Loisy, F.,, R. L. Atmar,, P. Guillon,, P. Le Cann,, M. Pommepuy, and, F. Le Guyader. 2005. Real-time RT-PCR for norovirus screening in shellfish. J. Virol. Methods 123:17.
138. Lopez-Sabater, E. I.,, M. Y. Deng, and, D. O. Cliver. 1997. Magnetic immunoseparation PCR assay (MIPA) for detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 24:101104.
139. Lopman, B.,, H. Vennema,, E. Kohli,, P. Pothier,, A. Sanchez,, A. Negredo,, J. Buesa,, E. Schreier,, M. Reacher,, D. Brown,, J. Gray,, M. Iturriza,, C. Gallimore,, B. Bottiger,, K. O. Hedlund,, M. Torven,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, L. Maunula,, M. Poljsak-Prijatelj,, J. Zimsek,, G. Reuter,, G. Szucs,, B. Melegh,, L. Svennson,, Y. van Duijnhoven, and, M. Koopmans. 2004. Increase in viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe and epidemic spread of new noro-virus variant. Lancet 363:682688.
140. Lopman, B. A.,, M. H. Reacher,, Y. van Duijnhoven,, F. X. Hanon,, D. Brown, and, M. Koopmans. 2003. Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:9096.
141. Lukasik, J.,, M. L. Bradley,, T. M. Scott,, M. Dea,, A. Koo,, W.-Y. Hsu,, J. A. Bartz, and, S. R. Farrah. 2003. Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes. J. Food Prot. 66:188193.
142. Mackay, I. M.,, K. E. Arden, and, A. Nitsche. 2002. Real-time PCR in virology. Nucleic Acids Res. 30:12921305.
143. Maier, K.,, P. Gabriel,, E. Koscielniak,, Y.-D. Stierhof,, K. H. Wiedmann,, K. B. Flehmig, and, A. Vallbracht. 1998. Human gamma interferon production by cytotoxic T lymphocytes sensitized during hepatitis A virus infection. J. Virol. 62:37563763.
144. Mallet, J. C.,, L. E. Beghian,, T. G. Metcalf, and, J. D. Kaylor. 1991. Potential of irradiation technology for improving shellfish sanitation. J. Food Safety 11:231245.
145. Mariam, T. W., and, D. O. Cliver. 2000. Hepatitis A virus control in strawberry products. Dairy Food Environ. Sanit. 20:612616.
146. Marks, P. J.,, I. B. Vipond,, D. Carlisle,, D. Deakin,, R. E. Fey, and, E. O. Caul. 2000. Evidence for airborne transmission of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant. Epidemiol. Infect. 124:481487.
147. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe, and, S. A. Sattar. 1990. Chemical disinfection of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:36013604.
148. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe, and, S. A. Sattar. 1991. Effect of relative humidity and air temperature on survival of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:13941399.
149. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, J. R. Boulet, and, S. A. Sattar. 1992. Survival of hepatitis A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:757763.
150. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe, and, S. A. Sattar. 1993. Comparative in vivo efficiencies of hand-washing agents 27. Foodborne Viral Pathogens against hepatitis A virus (HM-175) and poliovirus type 1 (Sabin). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:34633469.
151. McDonnell, S.,, K. B. Kirkland,, W. G. Hlady,, C. Aristeguieta,, R. S. Hopcins,, S. S. Monroe, and, R. I. Glass. 1997. Failure of cooking to prevent shellfish-associated viral gastroenteritis. Arch. Intern. Med. 157:111116.
152. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
153. Meltzer, M. I.,, C. N. Shapiro,, E. E. Mast, and, C. Arcari. 2001. The economics of vaccinating restaurant workers against hepatitis A. Vaccine 19:21382145.
154. Metcalf, T. G.,, J. L. Melnick, and, M. K. Estes. 1995. Environmental virology: from detection of virus in sewage and water by isolation to identification by molecular biology—a trip of over 50 years. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49:461487.
155. Millard, J.,, H. Appleton, and, J. V. Parry. 1987. Studies on heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus with special reference to shellfish. Epidemiol. Infect. 98:397414.
156. Miller, I.,, R. Gunson, and, W. F. Carman. 2002. Norwalk like virus by light cycler PCR. J. Clin. Virol. 25:231232.
157. Moe, C.,, J. Gentsch,, T. Ando,, G. Grohmann,, S. S. Monroe,, X. Jiang,, J. Wang,, M. K. Estes,, Y. Seto,, C. Humphrey,, S. Stine, and, R. I. Glass. 1994. Application of PCR to detect Norwalk virus in fecal specimens from outbreaks of gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:28662872.
158. Moe, C. L. 2003. Next time you have vomiting patients in your office—consider Noroviruses. Atlanta Med. J. Med. Assoc. Atlanta 77:1319.
159. Mohamed, N.,, S. Belak,, K.-O. Hedlund, and, J. Blomberg. 2006. Experience from the development of a diagnostic single tube real-time PCR for human caliciviruses, Norovirus genogroups I and II. J. Virol. Methods 132:6976. (First published 9 Nov. 2005; doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.09.006.)
160. Morse, D. L.,, J. J. Guzewich,, H. P. Hanrahan,, R. Stricof,, M. Shayegani,, R. Deibel,, J. Grabau,, N. A. Nowak,, J. E. Herrman,, G. Cukor, and, N. R. Blacklow. 1986. Widespread outbreaks of clam and oyster-associated gastroenteritis-role of Norwalk virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 314:678681.
161. Muniain-Mujika, I.,, M. Calvo,, F. Lucena, and, R. Girones. 2003. Comparative analysis of viral pathogens and potential indicators in shellfish. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 83:7585.
162. Muniain-Mujika, I.,, R. Girones,, G. Tofino-Quesada,, M. Calvo, and, F. Lucena. 2002. Depuration dynamics of viruses in shellfish. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 77:125133.
163. Myrmel, M. E.,, M. M. Berg,, E. Rimstad, and, B. Grinde. 2004. Detection of enteric viruses in shellfish from the Norwegian coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:26782684.
164. New York Department of Health. 1989. A Review of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in New York State, 1988. Bureau of Community Sanitation and Food Protection, Albany, N.Y.
165. Niu, M.T.,, L. B. Polish,, B. H. Robertson,, B. K. Khanna,, B. A. Woodruff,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. A. Miller,, J. D. Smith,, J. K. Gedrose,, M. J. Alterand, and, H. S. Margolis. 1992. Multistate outbreak of hepatitis A associated with frozen strawberries. J. Infect. Dis. 166:518524.
166. Pallansch, M. A., and, R. P. Roos. 2001. Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses, p. 723775. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
167. Pang, X. L.,, J. K. Preiksaitis, and, B. Lee. 2005. Multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection and quantitation of norovirus genogroups I and II in patients with acute gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Virol. 33:168171.
168. Papafragkou, E.,, D. H. D’Souza, and, L. Jaykus. 2006. Foodborne viruses: prevention and control, p. 289330. In S. M. Goyal (ed.), Food Virology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, N.Y.
169. Parashar, U. D.,, L. Dow,, R. L. Fankhauser,, C. D. Humphrey,, I. J. Miller,, T. Ando,, K. S. Williams,, C. R. Eddy,, J. S. Noel,, T. Ingram,, J. S. Bresee,, S. S. Monroe, and, R. I. Glass. 1998. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with consumption of sandwiches: implications for the control of transmission by food handlers. Epidemiol. Infect. 121:615621.
170. Parker, T. D.,, N. Kitamoto,, T. Tanaka,, A. M. Hutson, and, M. K. Estes. 2005. Identification of Genogroup I and Genogroup II broadly reactive epitopes on the norovirus capsid. J. Virol. 79:74027409.
171. Parrino, T. A.,, D. S. Schreiber,, J. S. Trier,, A. Z. Kapikian, and, N. R. Blacklow. 1977. Clinical immunity in acute gastroenteritis caused by Norwalk agent. N. Engl. J. Med. 297:8689.
172. Patterson, W.,, P. Haswell,, P. T. Fryers, and, J. Green. 1997. Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited. Comm. Dis. Rep. 7:R101R103.
173. Pavia, A. T.,, L. Nielson,, L. Armington,, D. J. Thurman,, E. Tierney, and, C. R. Nichols. 1990. A community-wide outbreak of hepatitis A in a religious community: impact of mass adminstration of immune globulin. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131:10851093.
174. Pina, S.,, M. Puig,, F. Lucena,, J. Jofre, and, R. Girones. 1998. Viral pollution in the environment and in shellfish: human adenovirus detection by PCR as an index of human viruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:33763382.
175. Pirtle, E. C., and, G. W. Beran. 1991. Virus survival in the environment. Rev. Sci. Tech. 10:733748.
176. Ponka, A.,, L. Maunula,, C. H. Von Bonsdorff, and, O. Lyytikainen. 1999. Outbreak of calicivirus gastroenteritis associated with eating frozen raspberries. Euro Surveill. 4:6669.
177. Potasman, I.,, A. Paz, and, M. Odeh. 2002. Infectious outbreaks associated with bivalve shellfish consumption: a worldwide perspective. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:921928.
178. Power, U. F., and, J. K. Collins. 1989. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:13861390.
179. Pringle, C. R. 1999. Virus taxonomy—1999. The universal system of virus taxonomy, updated to include the new proposals ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses during 1998. Arch. Virol. 144:421429.
180. Racaniello, V. R. 2001. Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 529566. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fundamental Virology. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Phildadephia, Pa.
181. Ribao, C.,, I. Torrado,, M. L. Vilarino, and, J. L. Romalde. 2004. Assessment of different commercial RNA-extraction and RT-PCR kits for detection of hepatitis A virus in mussel tissues. J. Virol. Methods 115:177182.
182. Richards, G. P. 1985. Outbreaks of shellfish-associated enteric virus illness in the United States: requisite for development of viral guidelines. J. Food Prot. 48:815823.
183. Richards, G. P. 1999. Limitations of molecular biological techniques for assessing the virological safety of foods. J. Food Prot. 62:691697.
184. Richards, G. P. 2001. Food-borne pathogens: enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27:117125.
185. Richards, G. P.,, M. A. Watson,, R. L. Fankhauser, and, S. S. Monroe. 2004. Genogroup I and II noroviruses detected in stool samples by real-time reverse transcription-PCR using highly degenerate universal primers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:71797184.
186. Robertson, B. H.,, R. W. Jansen,, B. Khanna,, A. Totsuka,, O. V. Nainan,, G. Siegel,, A. Widell,, H. S. Margolis,, S. Isomura,, K. Ito,, T. Ishizu,, Y. Moritsugu, and, S. M. Lemon. 1992. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions. J. Gen.Virol. 73:13651377.
187. Rockx, B.,, M. deWit,, H. Vennema,, J. Vinje,, E. de Bruin,, Y. van Duynhoven, and, M. Koopmans. 2002. Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:246253.
188. Rosenblum, L. S.,, I. R. Mirkin,, D. T. Allen,, S. Safford, and, S. C. Hadler. 1990. A multifocal outbreak of hepatitis A traced to commercially distributed lettuce. Am. J.Public Health 80:10751079.
189. Sair, A. I.,, D. H. D’Souza, and, L. Jaykus. 2002. Human enteric viruses as causes of foodborne disease. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 1:7389.
190. Sattar, S. A. 2004. Microbicides and the environmental control of nosocomial viral infections. J. Hosp. Infect. 56:564569.
191. Sattar, S. A.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, J. Tetro,, R. Vashon, and, B. Keswick. 2002. Hygienic hand antiseptics: should they not have activity and label claims against viruses? Am. J. Infect. Control 30:355372.
192. Sattar, S. A., and, S. A. Ansari. 2002. The fingerpad protocol to assess hygienic hand antiseptics against viruses. J. Virol. Methods 103:171181.
193. Schaub, S. A., and, R. K. Oshiro. 2000. Public health concerns about caliciviruses as waterborne contaminants. J. Infect. Dis. 181(Suppl. 2): 374380.
194. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, M. K. Estes,, T. G. Metcalf, and, R. L. Atmar. 1998. Distribution of Norwalk virus within shellfish following bioaccumulation and subsequent depuration by detection using RT-PCR. J. Food Prot. 61:16741680.
195. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, F. Le Guyader,, M. K. Estes, and, R. L. Atmar. 2001. Development of a reverse transcription-PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay for detection of “Norwalk-like” viruses and hepatitis A virus in stool and shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:742749.
196. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, R. L. Fankhauser,, N. A. Daniels,, S. S. Monroe,, D. A. Bergmire-Sweat,, M. K. Estes, and, R. L. Atmar. 2000. Development of methods to detect “Norwalk-like viruses” (NLVs) and hepatitis A virus in delicatessen foods: application to a food-borne NLV outbreak. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:213218.
197. Seymour, I. J., and, H. Appleton. 2001. Foodborne viruses and fresh produce. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91:759773.
198. Shieh, Y. C.,, K. R. Calci, and, R. S. Baric. 1999. A method to detect low levels of enteric viruses in contaminated oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:47094714.
199. Shieh, Y. C.,, S. S. Monroe,, R. L. Frankhauser,, G. W. Langlois,, W. Burkhardt III, and, R. S. Baric. 2000. Detection of Norwalk-like virus in shellfish implicated in illness. J. Infect. Dis. 181(Suppl. 2): S360S366.
200. Shieh, Y. C.,, R. S. Baric,, J. W. Woods, and, K. R. Calci. 2003. Molecular surveillance of enterovirus and N orwalk-like virus in oysters relocated to a municipal-sewage-impacted gulf estuary. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:71307136.
201. Shin, G.-A., and, M. D. Sobsey. 2003. Reduction of Norwalk virus, poliovirus 1, and bacteriophage MS2 by ozone disinfection of water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:39753978.
202. Sinton, L. W.,, C. H. Hall,, P. A. Lynch, and, R. J. Davies-Colley. 2002. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:11221131.
203. Slomka, M. J., and, H. Appleton. 1998. Feline calicivirus as a model system for heat inactivation studies of small round structured viruses in shellfish. Epidemiol. Infect. 121:401407.
204. Sobsey, M. D., and, L. A. Jaykus. 1991. Human enteric viruses and depuration of bivalve molluscs, p. 71114. In W. S. Otwell,, G. E. Rodrick, and, R. E. Martin (ed.), Molluscan Shellfish Depuration. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
205. Sockett, P. N.,, P. A. West, and, M. Jacob. 1985. Shellfish and public health. PHLS Microbiol. Dig. 2:2935.
206. Springthorpe, S., and, S. Sattar. 1998. Handwashing: what can we learn from recent research? Infect. Control Today 2:2028.
207. Stapleton, J. T. 1995. Host immune response to hepatitis A virus. J. Infect. Dis. 171(Suppl. 1): S9S14.
208. Sugieda, M.,, K. Nakajima, and, S. Nakajima. 1996. Outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus-associated gastroenteritis traced to shellfish: coexistence of two genotypes in one specimen. Epidemiol. Infect. 116:339346.
209. Suslow, T. V.,, M. P. Oria,, L. R. Beuchat,, E. H. Garrett,, M. E. Parish,, L. J. Harris,, J. N. Farber, and, F. F. Busta. 2003. Production practices as risk factors in microbial food safety of fresh and fresh-cut produce. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 2(Suppl.): 140.
210. Svensson, L. 2000. Diagnosis of foodborne viral infections in patients. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 59:117126.
211. Thurston-Enriquez, J. A.,, C. N. Haas,, J. Jacangelo,, K. Riley, and, C. P. Gerba. 2003. Inactivation of feline calicivirus and adenovirus type 40 by UV radiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:577582.
212. Tierney, J. T.,, R. Sullivan,, J. T. Peeler, and, E. P. Larkin. 1982. Persistence of polioviruses in shellstock and shucked oysters stored at refrigeration temperature. J. Food Prot. 45:11351137.
213. Tseng, F.,, J. S. Leon,, J. N. MacCormack,, J. M. Maillard, and, C. L. Moe. Molecular epidemiology of gastroenteritis outbreaks in North Carolina, United States, 1995–2000. J. Med. Virol., in press.
214. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 21 Sept. 2005, revision date. Guidance for Industry: Guide To Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. [Online.] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.foodsafety.gov/∼dms/prodguid.html.
215. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 10 Oct. 2005, revision date. Food Code. [Online.] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼dms/fc05-toc.html.
216. Vallbracht, A.,, B. Fleischer, and, F. W. Busch. 1993. Hepatitis A: hepatotropism and influence on myelopoiesis. Intervirology 35:33139.
217. van Regenmortel, M. H. V.,, C. M. Fauquet, and, D. H. L. Bishop. 2000. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses, p. 725739. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.
218. Vinje, J.,, R. A. Hamidjaja, and, M. D. Sobsey. 2004. Development and application of a capsid VP1 (region D) based reverse transcription PCR assay for genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses. J. Virol. Methods 116:109117.
219. Vinjé, J.,, H. Vennema,, L. Maunula,, C.-H. van Bonsdorff,, M. Hoehne,, E. Schreier,, A. Richards,, J. Green,, D. Brown,, S. S. Beard,, S. S. Monroe,, E. de Bruin,, L. Svensson, and, M. P. G. Koopmans. 2003. International collaborative study to compare reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detection and genotyping of noroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:14231433.
220. Vinje, J., and, M. P. Koopmans. 2000. Simultaneous detection and genotyping of “Norwalk-like viruses” by oligonucleotide array in a reverse line blot hybridization format. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:25952601.
221. Ward, R. L.,, D. I. Bernstein,, D. R. Knowlton,, J. R. Sherwood,, E. C. Young,, T. M. Cusack,, J. R. Rubino, and, G. M. Schiff. 1991. Prevention of surface-to-human transmission of rotaviruses by treatment with disinfectant spray. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:19911996.
222. Wheeler, C.,, T. M. Vogt,, G. L. Armstrong,, G. Vaughan,, A. Weltman,, O. V. Nainan,, V. Dato,, G. Xia,, K. Waller,, J. Amon,, T. M. Lee,, A. Highbaugh-Battle,, C. Hembree,, S. Evenson,, M. A. Ruta,, I. T. Williams,, A. E. Fiore, and, B. P. Bell. 2005. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:890897.
223. White, K. E.,, M. T. Osterholm,, J. A. Mariotti,, J. A. Korlath,, D. H. Lawrence,, T. L. Ristinen, and, H. B. Greenberg. 1986. A foodborne outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis: evidence for post recovery transmission. Am. J. Epidemiol. 124:120126.
224. Widdowson, M.-A.,, A. Sulka,, S. N. Bulens,, R. S. Beard,, S. S. Chaves,, R. Hammond,, E. D. P. Salehi,, E. Swanson,, J. Totaro,, R. Woron,, P. S. Mead,, J. S. Bresee,, S. S. Monroe, and, R. I. Glass. 2005. Norovirus and foodborne disease, United States, 1991–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:95102. [Online.]
225. Wilde, J.,, J. Eiden, and, R. Yolken. 1990. Removal of inhibitory substances from human fecal specimens for detection of group A rotaviruses by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:13001307.
226. Wilkinson, N.,, A. S. Kurdziel,, S. Langton,, E. Needs, and, N. Cook. 2001. Resistance of poliovirus to inactivation by high hydrostatic pressures. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 2:9598.
227. Wyatt, R. G.,, R. Dolin,, N. R. Blacklow,, H. L. DuPont,, R. F. Buscho,, T. S. Thornhill,, A. Z. Kapikian, and, R. M. Chanock. 1974. Comparison of three agents of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis by cross-challenge in volunteers. J. Infect. Dis. 129:709714.
228. Yates, M. V.,, C. P. Gerba, and, L. M. Kelley. 1985. Virus persistence in groundwater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:778781.
229. Yotsuyanagi, H.,, K. Koike,, K. Yasuada,, K. Moriya,, Y. Shintani,, H. Fujie,, K. Kurokawa, and, S. Iino. 1996. Prolonged fecal excretion of hepatitis A virus in adult patients with hepatitis A as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Hepatology 24:1013.


Generic image for table
Table 27.1

Representative viral foodborne disease outbreaks

Citation: D’Souza D, Moe C, Jaykus L. 2007. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 581-607. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch27
Generic image for table
Table 27.2

Representative studies on enteric viral disinfection

Citation: D’Souza D, Moe C, Jaykus L. 2007. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 581-607. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch27

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error