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Chapter 28 : Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health

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Abstract:

Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) include the prototypic disease kuru, which is limited to Papua New Guinea and is now virtually extinct. In the event that infectivity is definitively found to be present in muscle from cattle infected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), available scientific and epidemiological evidence to date suggests that it does not appear to exist in amounts sufficient to increase the risk to human health in countries with adequate prevention and control measures. The continuance of BSE cases due to cross contamination and cross feeding of ruminant meat and bone meal (MBM) has resulted in extended feed bans which have prohibited feeding of all mammalian or animal meat and bone meal (MBM) to any animals used for human food. Humans most likely became infected with the agent that causes BSE through the consumption of beef products contaminated by central nervous systems (CNS) tissue, such as mechanically recovered meat that was pressure extracted from carcasses and often contained spinal cord tissue and paraspinal ganglia in addition to residual muscle shards. The combination of psychiatric and sensory symptoms in an adolescent or young adult is sufficient to raise a suspicion of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) together with its variant form (vCJD) in patients who reside or have resided in countries in which BSE has occurred.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28

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Figures

Image of Figure 28.1
Figure 28.1

The family of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. TME, transmissible mink encephalopathy; GSS, Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker disease; FFI, fatal familial insomnia.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.2
Figure 28.2

Western blots of misfolded prion protein (PrP) extracted from the brains in two cases of sporadic CJD(s) (types 1 and 2A) and a case of vCJD (v) (type 2B). The combination of the lower molecular mass and the comparatively higher density of the topmost protein band (asterisk) distinguishes vCJD from all other TSEs. M, methionine; V, valine. Courtesy of Mark Head, CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.3
Figure 28.3

The chronology of BSE (black) in the United Kingdom compared to those of vCJD in the United Kingdom (gray) and non-United Kingdom countries (white). The BSE scale is at the left, and the vCJD scale is at the right. SBO, specified bovine offals; MRM, mechanically recovered meat.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.4
Figure 28.4

Age at onset in United Kingdom cases of vCJD and sporadic CJD, 1994 to 2005. Courtesy of Robert Will, CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.5
Figure 28.5

Duration of illness in United Kingdom cases of vCJD and sporadic CJD (sCJD), 1994 to 2005. Courtesy of Robert Will, CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.6
Figure 28.6

The pathognomonic vCJD daisy plaque consisting of a core of amyloid protein surrounded by vacuolar petals. Courtesy of James Ironside, CJD Surveillance Unit, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.7
Figure 28.7

Red “RM” identification labels are used to differentiate between slaughterhouse tools used to handle specified risk materials (SRMs) and those for edible product. Courtesy of Ana Carolina Alonso Simplicio de Oliveira, Frigoalta, Brazil.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 28.1

Categories of efficacy of various chemical and physical disinfection methods

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.2

Proteinase-resistant protein (PrP) and infectivity reductions under various pressure, temperature, and exposure time conditions

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.3

Misfolded-protein (PrP) reductions in various meat products spiked with 263K scrapie agent-infected hamster brain and then cooked for 5 min at 130°C under 690 MPa of pressure

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.4

Distribution of tissue infectivity and PrP in naturally occurring human and animal TSE diseases

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.5

Consumable bovine materials used by humans

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.6

Principal governmental measures taken to protect human and animal health

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2007. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Consequences for Human Health, p 611-626. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch28

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